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Subordinating Conjunctions (copy/revised)

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Mr. Sye

on 13 August 2014

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Transcript of Subordinating Conjunctions (copy/revised)

Ideas
Ideas
SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
A
CLAUSE
is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate. There are two types of clauses:

An
independent clause
is a group of words that has subject and predicate. An independent clause does not depend upon anything else for its meaning. It expresses a complete thought.

A
subordinate clause
is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate, but the clause cannot stand alone.
Subordinating Conjunctions
Join one clause to another on which it depends for its full meaning.
A subordinating conjunction joins a subordinate (dependent) clause to a main (independent) clause
The most common subordinating conjunctions are:
After
- later than the time that : later than when.
Example: “Call me after you arrive at work”

Although
- despite the fact that : used to introduce a fact that makes another fact unusual or surprising.
Example: “Although she was tired, she couldn’t sleep”

As
- used to introduce a statement which indicates that something being mentioned was known, expected, etc.
Example: “As we explained last class, coordinating conjunctions are sentence connectors”

Because
- for the reason that.
Example: “I painted the house because it was a horrible colour”

Before
- earlier than the time that : earlier than when.
Example: “Come and visit me before you leaveHow - in what manner or way.
Example: “Let me show you how to knit”

If
-used to talk about the result or effect of something that may happen or be true.
Example: “It would be fantastic if you could come to the party”

Once
- at the moment when : as soon as.
Example: “Once you’ve learnt how to cycle, it’s very easy”
The following is a list of the most commonly used subordinating conjunctions:
Example(s) of Subordinating Conjunctions in use...
Rule of Thumb:
a subordinate conjunction will connect a main clause and a subordinate one. If the main clause comes first in the sentence it won’t be separated from the subordinate clause by a comma (
rule #1
). If the subordinate clause comes first, then we will separate the clauses with a comma (
rule #2
).

Rule #1:
It will be open tomorrow
because
the cafeteria is closed for cleaning today.




Rule #2:
Although
the cafeteria is closed for cleaning today
,
it will be open tomorrow.

Conclusion
Time for some practice!
DEPENDENT CLAUSE
INDEPENDENT CLAUSE
4. Manner is expressed by how.
This is how I want to do it.
 
5. Concession is expressed by although.
Although I made a few mistakes, I got a very good mark.
 
6. Condition is expressed by if and unless.
If you go with me, I’ll treat you to a snack.
I’ll not speak to you unless you go with me.
 
7. Place is expressed by where.
I don’t know where I lost it.


The principal subordinate conjunctions are what, that/ so that, because, how, though/although, if/as if, unless, where and whether.
 
1. What is answered by a that clause.
That he is a liar is false (What is false?)
They claimed
that he is a liar (What did they claim?)
 
2. Purpose is expressed in the following examples:
They read that they may learn.
They read, so that they may learn.

3. Cause and effect is expressed in the following:
He failed because he did not study.
He was so lazy that he failed.
 


Subordinating conjunctions are those words that introduce the subordinate clauses and join them to the main clause.

Example:
We will miss the school bus.
You hurry.

We will miss the school bus unless you hurry.



8. Uncertainty is introduced by whether (not if)
I don’t know whether I can go with you.
 
9. An adjectival subordinate clause may be introduced by who, which, or that.
The boy who won the prize is my cousin.
The prize, which he won, is a book.
The flowers that she sent are orchids.


Subordinating conjunctions can be classified into nine categories according to their meaning.

They are as follows: time, cause or reason, purpose, result or consequences, concession and comparison.

Subordinating conjunctions can be used for introducing noun clauses. The most commonly used subordinating conjunction for introducing a noun clause is “that”.
Some others are if, when, whether, why and how.

Examples:
I don’t know whether he will come.
I think that he is trustworthy.
I don’t care if he comes or not.

Join one clause to another on which it depends for its full meaning.
A sentence makes complete only when the main clause is combined with subordinate clause.
Example:
Sid found his bottled water where he had left it earlier.


Subordinating Conjunctions

The following is a list of the most commonly used subordinating conjunctions:


Since
- used to introduce a statement that explains the reason for another statement.
Example: “Since you’ve studied so well, you can go outside and play”


When
- at or during the time that something happened.
Example: “A teacher is good when he inspires his students”

Where
- at or in the place that something happened.
Example: “We went to the bar where there most shade”

Whether
-used to indicate choices or possibilities.
Example: “Bruno wasn’t sure whether to go to India or Thailand”

While
- during the time that something happened”
Example: “While we were in Paris, it snowed”

Until
- up to the time or point that something happened”
Example: “We stayed up talking until the sun came up”
Full transcript