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The Soviet War in Afghanistan

Cold War project for History 12.
by

Enya Leger

on 29 April 2013

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Transcript of The Soviet War in Afghanistan

The Soviet War in Afghanistan A presentation by Enya Léger Background Relationship between Afghanistan and the USSR Royal Afghan Army assisted Soviets in the 30's By early 50's, Afghanistan is a major recipient of Soviet aid Many Afghans were offered training in the USSR Late 50's, US gets involved Results in an aid-giving battle between the two superpowers Salang Tunnel (Soviet project) Helmand Valley Dams (American project) 1969: Beginning of famine and drought Mohammed Daoud overthrew King Mohammed Zahir Shah Government met with discontent from communists (PDPA supporters) and Islamists Centrist policy: balance reformation with becoming less dependant April 27, 1978 Saur Revolution: Daoud executed, Taraki leader of Democratic Republic of Afghanistan People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan Established in 1965 Two major factions: Khalqs and Parchams Taraki pushes socialist agenda land reforms promoting atheism women's rights education Party flag Soviet response: advise caution Islamist Rebellions March 1979: Herat rebels Other cities follow "Jihad" Why were the reforms unsuccessful? Islamic ideals threatened
Misunderstanding between rural and urban people
Previously privileged members of society unhappy 13 pleas for help from the government to the USSR through the chaos of 1979 September 14, 1979 Taraki is assassinated The Soviet Invasion Since 1978, presence had gradually increased Diorama of Herat uprising December 27,1979: Soviets kill Amin Afghanistan is "liberated", Karmal chosen as new puppet leader Initial force: 1800 tanks, 80,000 troops, and 2000 AFVs (armoured fighting vehicles) 34 Islamic nations condemn invasion UN vote: 104-18 Occupation Muslim rebels and the Islamic Unity of Afghanistan Mujahideen December 1979 - February 1980: Phase 1 Entered by two ground routes and one air corridor Afghan army failed at stopping rebellions, job given to Soviets Only 20% of the country under government's control Focus on eliminating civilian support Millions leave Afghanistan for Pakistan and Iran Mujahideen fighters Occupation cont'd Panjshir Offensives 1980 - 1985: 9 offensives Panjshir Valley Valley strategically important Since 1979, mujahideen controlled and dangerous 3 major tactics: aerial bombardment prevent enemy retreat armored vehicles to support helicopters Failure because: victories only temporary, Mujahideen would learn of upcoming attacks Destroyed village Three main strategies: Attacks meant to intimidate The use of spies Search and destroy Also used secret police (KHAD) 1985, Gorbachev in power: Soviets should put an end to the war More troops sent in, bloodiest year of the war Bringing the War to a Close Karmal had been replaced by Mohammad Najibullah He also proved to be ineffective Eventually, Gorbachev decided to withdraw 1986: US started supplying Stinger missiles These missiles did much damage, and cost the Soviet Union "Natural Reconciliation" Reagan administration divided: "dealers" vs. "bleeders" 1988: Pakistan, US, Afghanistan, and USSR sign agreement February 15, 1989: Last Soviet tank leaves Stinger video Bibliography http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_war_in_afghanistan http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/plaintexthistories.asp?historyid=ad09 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7883532.stm http://www.theatlantic.com/past/politics/foreign/reagrus.htm http://www.coldwar.org/articles/70s/afghan_war.asp http://www.thenation.com/article/167440/ideology-and-electricity-soviet-experience-afghanistan# http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1499983/Soviet-invasion-of-Afghanistan Important People Mohammad Daoud Khan Last king Nur Muhammad Taraki Hafizullah Amin Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Ahmad Shah Massoud Overthrew the monarchy of his cousin President of Afghanistan 1973-1979 Assassinated in the Saur Revolution Known for progressive policies Criticized for repressing those who opposed him Founding member of the PDPA Elected General Secretary at first congress Controversial land and social reforms Also had "cult of personality", and purged opposition Assassination planned by Amin Ruled for just over 3 months Discontent with the communists worsened under his reign Soviets claimed he was a CIA agent Assassinated during the Soviet invasion Replacement put in by the Soviets for Amin Tried, but was unsuccessful in winning over the anti-communist population Had been founding member of PDPA Labelled a failure, and blamed for problems Most important Mujahideen leader "Lion of Panjshir" and "Afghan who won the Cold War" Great commander in fight against Soviets Helped to establish a Mujahideen government Last communist president of Afghanistan Joined PDPA in late 60's For a while, responsible for secret police Held power until 1992, when Mujahideen came in Even though he turned Afghanistan into Islamic State in 1990 and removed traces of communism, had little support Timeline 1978 (April 27) - PDPA seizes power from Daoud 1978 (December 5) - Friendship treaty with USSR 1979 (March) - Herat uprising 1979 (September) - Amin takes over from Taraki 1979 (December 27) - Soviet forces kill Amin 1979 (December 29) - Karmal is installed 1979 (December 24) - Invasion begins 1980 - Mujahideen grows 1980-1985: Panjshir offensives 1982 - UN General Assembly calls for Soviet withdrawal 1985 (March 11) - New Soviet leader: Gorbachev 1986 - US starts supplying Mujahideen with Stinger missiles 1986 (May 4) Najibullah replaces Karmal 1988 - Pakistan, US, Afghanistan, and USSR sign peace accords 1989 (February 15) - Last Soviet tanks leaves Afghanistan
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