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Fever Model: Russian vs. Cuban Revolutions

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Sitara Kodali

on 28 November 2013

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Transcript of Fever Model: Russian vs. Cuban Revolutions

1. Fulgencia Batista is out of power for 8 years, during which time, the Cuban government becomes victim to tyranny.
2. Public services break down, including the lack of water infrastructure, and rampant unemployment.
3. As Fulgencia Batista returns to power, he becomes dictatorial and manipulative regarding the press, universities, press, congress, and economy, in an attempt to maintain a working relationship with the United States, on whom Cuba was dependent for sugar sales.
4. An example of Batista's manipulation of the economy includes the allowance of the American mobster, Meyer Lansky to create a front for gambling to pay back Cuban debts in Havana.
Cuban Rev.
Fever Model: Russian vs. Cuban Revolutions
Russian Rev.
1. Bolshevik Revolution (November 6, 1917): Vladimir Lenin led the Soviets and the Bolshevik Party, which ultimately became communist party of Soviet Union, overthrew the provisional government in Petrograd, seized control of many parts of the government.
2. Lenin signed the treaty of Brest-Litovsk to end Russia's participation in WWI
3. Russian Civil War (June 1918) occurred between Bolshevik Party (Red Army) and anti-Bolshevik Party (Whites), which opposed the revolutionary ideas of the Bolshevik Party and had international allies, and ended with Bolshevik party eventually winning. There were millions of casualties on both sides.
4. Tzar Nicholas II and family executed (July 7, 1918) after the Bolsheviks came to power.

In Russia, the Soviets, lead by Lenin, overthrew the provisional government in Petrograd in what was known as the Bolshevik Revolution. This enabled them to seek control over many parts of government. However, as the treaty of Brest- Litovsk ended Russia's involvement in WWI, many anti- Bolshevik parties opposed the seizure of power, and unsuccessfully challenged their rule through the Russian Civil War. After this, Nicholas II and his entire family are assassinated.
In Cuba, many drastic social movements such as guerrilla attacks on the communication and transportation systems of towns, country- wide strikes, and battles lead to the final battle at Santa Clara in which the rebels were successful, and after which, the Castro brothers took charge as the previous government fell.
These events are placed in the Crisis stage because they represent the heights, and turning points in both respective Revolutions. In Russia, this is represented by the Bolshevik Revolution, which represents among the first major shift in power. In Cuba, this is represented by the ability of the rebel communist party to hold their own against the Cuban army.
These stages in both respective revolutions are similar in that they both show the dawn of a new era in which a new party emerges from the revolution, obviously superior or stronger than their opponents, in this case, the Bolsheviks and the Communists, respectively. The formation of the Soviet Union is also of utmost importance for Cuba's progressions as a socialist state. Both revolutions end this section with the previous leader or power source being eliminated, through death or exile in Nicholas II and Batista.
In Russia, workers revolted on the streets in an effort to reform the terrible working conditions. This caused the Tzar to step down and a provisional government to form. This provisional government was also opposed by the Bolsheviks (the leading revolutionary political party) and conditions in Russia worsened still. This gave way to the Soviets, which were local councils of common people. The soviets backed the Bolsheviks and more brutal, armed demonstrations and protests occurred.
In Cuba, Fidel Castro led an assault on the largest military base in the country. Even though the assault failed, it was a turning point and a major call to action. The revolutionary party was further fueled to make change when the communist party was outlawed in Cuba. Fidel Castro responded by using Guerrilla tactics to cut-off and damage the Cuban economy.
These events of the Russian and Cuban Revolutions are grouped into the Symptomatic category because they are when both Cuba and Russia show direct action and involvement. These events show the beginning of the process of physically implementing a change. They were direct attempts to change society by the revolutionary parties. In Russia, the workers part-took in street-level riots and demonstrations and were able to actually implement a change. In Cuba, Fidel Castro led his followers to take their own action and revolt against the Cuban government.
In both revolutions, this is the stage when people started banding together and forming a united revolutionary stand. In Russia, this was the Soviets and The Bolshevik Party. In Cuba, this is Fidel Castro and his followers as well and Che Guevara and the Communist group.
Both the Cuban and the Russian revolutions involved the general population. In the Cuban revolution, this is shown through the guerilla warfare tactics later used by the militia, whereas, in the Russian revolution, this is shown by physical uprisings of the people against the power.
Russian Rev.
1. The grandfather of Nicholas II was assassinated by revolutionary terrorists, causing the father of Nicholas II to respond by brutally oppressing the Russian people.
2. Nicholas II became tzar himself in 1894 and had to similarly oppress the Russian people to subdue increasingly frequent resistance movements.
3. This continued, his grip became weaker and weaker, and Nicholas II still clung to autocracy even though times were changing (caused widespread suffering including poor working conditions, low wages, significant inequalities between workers and owners).
4. WWI (July 15, 1914) (hunger, casualties, bad economy)
5. Bloody Sunday (1905 Massacre of unarmed protesters outside of palace)

In Russia, Nicholas II was trying to maintain autocracy and was oppressing the Russian people. By doing this, his grip and control continually lessened and things got out of hand. The nation was struggling with a variety of things internally, such as famine and inequality, while having to suffer the repercussions of WWI, which caused more hunger while taking away from the working population because of the great amount of casualties. This caused the Russian economy to further spiral downwards. When unarmed protesters gathered outside of the Palace, they were gunned down and massacred. This was a major turning point that triggered the beginning of change in Russia.
In Cuba, the Cuban Government gets out of control because of Fulgencia Batista's loss of power. The public facilities break down and the economy and job market spiral out of control as well. As Fulgencia Batista comes back to power, he aggressively oppresses the Cuban People.
These events of the Russian and Cuban Revolutions are grouped into the Incubation category because they are essentially what caused the turmoil and chaos of revolution. The majority of these events festered over time and caused the populations to become fed up and desire change. These events don't encompass much revolutionary action, but they show the starting points and the initial motivation behind the revolutions.
The Russian Revolution and Cuban Revolution are similar in that they both originated with leaders that lost power over their people and tried to regain their power by brutally oppressing them. Also, both of the revolutions begin with extremely dysfunctional economies. Russia was far behind other countries in terms of urbanization and industrialization, while imposing terrible working conditions, low wages, etc. on the people. In Cuba, there was a massive shortage in jobs and the public infrastructure was deteriorating, similarly damaging the economy. Both countries also suffered a lack of vital components for life. There was a great lack of food in Russia and a great lack of water distribution in Cuba. The beginnings of the two revolutions are different in that there wasn't an outright attack on the people of Cuba that really set the revolution off like there was in Russia.
Russian Rev.
1.February Revolution (February 23-27, 1917)(Workers all over Russia in industrialized cities went on strike because of terrible conditions, revolted on streets, and demanded reform and change; Tzar was forced to step down.
2. Formation of Provisional Government (March 2, 1917), which was set up by Alexander Kerensky and Russian parliament (liberal part of revolution) and conditions still worsened.
3. Local councils formed made of peasants and workers, called soviets, and gained more and more influence.
4. The July Days (July 3-7, 1917) Workers and soldiers of Petrograd (St. Petersburg) staged armed demonstrations against provisional government, which was opposed by soviets.

Cuban Rev.
1. The Moncada Assault occurs in 1953, lead by Fidel Castro, a young, well educated revolutionary. The assault targets the largest military base in the country and, despite the massive failure of the mission, serves as a call to action for the revolutionaries.
2. The Cuban Communist Party is outlawed by Batista in 1953, as a reaction to the Moncada Assault, aggravating the frustrations of the revolutionary party.
3. Che Guevara joins the Castro brothers in leading the revolution and eventually serves as a guard of political prisoners, often in charge of interrogation and torture.
4. Castro's forces use guerilla tactics to revolt against .
Cuban Rev.
1. In 1958, the Cuban revolutionaries organize and carry out a country wide strike, which is detrimental the economy, and is viewed as the final strand against Batista's rule.
2. The Cuban army attacks the revolutionary forces in Sierra Maestra mountains, where the victory of the rebels symbolizes their superiority over the Cuban government's organizations.
3. The rebel forces attack any means of communication and transportation in the provinces of Oriente, Camaguey, and Las Villas in 1958.
4. The undernourished, out numbered, and out gunned revolutionary forces, lead by Guevara, attack the Cuban army in Santa Clara, and are eventually helped by the civilians to barricade against the government forces, which are eventually defeated.
Russian Rev.
1. Formation of USSR (December 30, 1922) after the Bolsheviks were successful in the Russian Civil War. The Soviet Union united Russia, The Transcaucasus, Ukraine, and Belarus.
2. Joseph Stalin (January 21, 1924) replaced Lenin after his death and created a central economy and enforced agricultural collectivization to increase the food supply.
3. Russia fully entered the Industrial age; urbanized and industrial regions as well as education flourished.
4. Emergence of Russia as a world power and recognition as Soviet Union by other countries.
5. Russia eventually became a superpower alongside the U.S. and engaged in the Cold War
In Russia, the USSR is formed under the Bolshevik regime, including the Soviet Union and the Transcaucasus. Russia began to benefit from the communist ideal of communal food sources, as communal agriculture greatly increased the food supply, thus diminishing one of the initial causes of the revolution. After this, Russia enters the industrial age and becomes a world power. Because of conflict with the United States, the Cold War ensues.
In Cuba, the Cuban Communist party takes over. Like Russia, social reform began, and better infrastructures, spreading wealth, and increasing calls for equal rights helped Cuba to progress. However, as Russia became a world power, Cuba remained depended on other powers for support. Both Cuba and Russia experienced conflict with the United States, leading to the Bay of Pigs invasion, Cuban Missile Crisis, and Cold war. As Cuba formalized its ties with the Soviet Union, Social conditions and ideas in both places became increasingly similar due to the subordinate status Cuba had to the Soviet Union.
These events are categorized here because they take place after the turn of events, and, while the conflict is still raging with events such as the Cold War and the Cuban Missile Crisis, the primary change in power has been established and will withstand further change for a period of time after this.
Cuban Rev.
1. After defeat during the attack on Santa Clara, Batista flees the country, officially marking the end of his rule in Cuba in January of 1959.
2. The Castro government was introduced in Cuba and lead to several means of social reformation including steps to racial and gender equality, and advances in health care, as well as forming a communist government that endures today.
3. The American government severed ties with Cuba, for fear of it's socialist ideas, eventually leading to the Bay of Pigs invasion.
4. Castro formalizes ties with the Soviet Union that eventually cause the Cuban Missile Crisis.
By: Shyama Nithiananda and Sitara Kodali
Bloody Sunday
February Revolution
Vladimir Lenin
Joseph Stalin

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
Tzar Nicholas II
Alexander Kerensky
The July Days
Russian Civil War Propaganda
Russian Industrial Age

Cold War Poster
WWI Russia

Fulgencia Batista
Joblessness, poverty, and a weakened infrastructure strike Cuba in Batista's absence

Batista became dictatorial and controlling upon returning to power.
Batista's allowance of the American mobster, Meyer Lansky, to create a gambling front in Havana epitomizes economic manipulation.
The Moncada military base attacked by Fidel Castro's militia
Fidel Castro
As a result of the Moncada attack, the Cuban Communist Party is outlawed and the revolution begins.
Che Guevara joins the Castro brothers as a leader of the revolution.
Batista flees Cuba after defeat, allowing Castro and the Cuban Communist Party to seize control.
Bay of Pigs Invasion
Cuban Missile Crisis
The revolutionaries participate in a work strike to protest against Batista's rule.
The rebels prove their superiority by fending off an attack by the Cuban army in the sierra maestra mountains.
The militia attacks transportation and communication in cities such as Oriente, Camagueay, and Las Villas on the way to Santa Clara.
Guevara leads the troops into Santa Clara for the final battle of the revolution, in which the civilians aid the rebels in barricading against the Cuban army, and the rebels are victorious.
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