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Copy of Preliminary PDHPE - Core 2 The Body in Motion
Transcript of Copy of Preliminary PDHPE - Core 2 The Body in Motion
physical fitness, training
and movement efficiency? Focus Question 3 -
How do biomechanical
movement? Anatomy Physiology Musculoskeletal System The study of body structure and the relationship between body structures. The study of how the body works and the various functions of body parts. The muscular and skeletal systems. They protect vital organs, and provide the body with support and the ability to move. P. 70 Skeletal System P. 71 Function of the skeletal system:
Support - provide a framework for attachment of soft connective tissue, such as muscles
Protection - They protect internal organs eg. Ribs protect the heart and lungs
Movement - When muscles contract they pull on bones and produce movement
Mineral Storage - Mainly calcium and phosphorous, which is released as needed
Blood Cell Production - Within red bone marrow
Storage of energy - Yellow bone marrow is stored source of lipids in the bones Major Bones involved in movement Almost all bones can be classified into one of four main types depending on their shape: long, short, flat and irregular. The unique shape of each bone fulfils particular needs within the body. P. 71 Long Bones The most common long bones are in the arms and legs. They typically have the following features:
A curved shape, to absorb shock and distribute pressure
A long shaft (diaphysis), which is covered by a membrane called the periosteum
The medullary cavity, which contains the red bone marrow in childhood and yellow bone marrow in adulthood
the end portions (epiphyses), each is covered in articular cartilage to reduce friction and absorb shock at moveable joints P. 71 P. 72 Structure and Function of Joints P. 75 Classifying Joints
Define what a joint is
describe how joints can be classified
Glue sheet into your book Types of Synovial Joints Write a summary of the different types of synovial joints
Include at least one example of each
Glue sheet into your book P. 78 SKELETON QUIZ Structure and function of synovial joints Glue the sheet from Page 77 into your book.
Read as a class the information and identify each section described on the images shown Joint Actions P. 78 Read information under joint action as a class
Copy Table 4.1 into your books, include an example of where each joint action occurs in the body. 1. Update your revision book - Due Monday Week 6
2. Answer the following questions, try to do them without referring to your notes
Identify the six different types of synovial joints
Explain how the joint movements of flexion and extension differ from abduction and adduction.
Explain the importance of the skeletal system to the body.
Questions are due Friday Period 3 Homework Muscular System Muscles convert chemical energy into mechanical energy to create a force, and this allows us to move.
The three types of muscle tissue:
Skeletal - primarily attached to bones, moves the skeleton. It is said to be striated muscle because of its appearance. Contraction is under our direct control therefore it is voluntary.
Cardiac - forms most of the heart. Striated, however contractions occur without us knowing, therefore it is considered involuntary.
Smooth - located on the walls of our internal structures. Eg. stomach, blood vessels, intestines. they are nonstriated and usually involuntary. There are three basic functions that muscle tissue serves through contracting and relaxing:
produce movement to walk, run, jump, breathe, digest and excrete
provide stabilisation of posture and internal organs
generate heat to maintain body temperature P. 81 Muscular System P. 81 Muscle Relationships Muscles can only pull, they do not push.
Muscles generally work in groups in order to give us movement. Most muscles are arranged in opposing pairs.
Muscles can be classified functionally into three groups
agonist - provides the main force to cause desired movement (prime movers)
antagonist - muscle that opposes or reverses that particular movement (muscles that react)
stabilisers - muscle that aids agonist by promoting the same movement or by reducing unnecessary movement or undesired action. P. 83-85 A muscle may act as an agonist in one movement, and an antagonist in another and a stabiliser in yet another. All muscles are important in creating coordinated, smooth and precise movement.
Examples? Muscule relationships cont P. 85 Remember
Agonist = Agony
Antagonist = Anti-Agony Did you know? Approximately 40% of your body weight is mucle
Without muscles you couldn't talk, walk, smile, blink or breathe Read and summarise page 85-87.
How can you remember the difference between isotonic and isometric contractions?
Include examples of each. Types of Contractions P. 85-87 Watch the video on the next slide answer the following questions.
1. What are the major bones involved in this movement?
2. What are the joint actions?
3. What are the major muscles involved?
4. What are the types of contractions?
Present your information in the table that follows the video. Analysis of Throw All cells use oxygen in metabolic reactions to create energy. These reactions produce carbon dioxide as a waste.
The cardiorespiratory system provides oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide through the blood in a process known as respiration. Respiratory System P. 89 Structure and Function P. 89 The organs of the respiratory system are the nose, pharynx (throat), larynx (voice box), trachea (windpipe), bronchi, and the lungs.
Summarise Page 89-90 outlining the structure of the lungs, bronchi, and alveoli. Glue in diagram of the respiratory system. Analysis of Throw Lung Function P. 90 Lung Function Continued P. 90 Inspiration and Respiration Pulmonary Ventilation allows a continuous flow of air from the outside into and out of the lunch alveoli. At rest, an adult averages 12 respirations in one minute, resulting in the movement of 6 litres of air into and out of the lungs/min. Air flows into the body and out of it for the same reason that blood flows through the body: A pressure gradient exists. Gases will generally move from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure. Inspiration occurs due to the air outside having higher pressure than the air in the lungs, because your muscles have increased in size and volume inside the lungs. When the diaphragm and external intercostals (M between the ribs) relax, the pressure inside the lungs is greater than outside because the lung size and volume have decreased. Hence, we breathe out in the process of expiration. Lung Function Continued P. 90 Inspiration and Respiration It erupted in 1956 Exchange of Gases P. 90 Gas exchange happens in the alveoli, and in all the cells of tissues in our body. Gas exchanges between the air in the alveoli and the blood capillaries, this is known as pulmonary diffusion.
This is able to occur due to the pressure gradient between the two gases (O2 and CO2). The air we breathe into our lungs is higher in O2 than the blood in our capillaries. The opposite is true for CO2. The gas will always travel from high pressure to low pressure. So the O2 in the air will travel into our blood and the CO2 from the blood will travel into the air, which we then breathe out. This process is known as diffusion. Exchange of Gases Contin P. 90 A spirometer measures the following lung volumes:
Vital Capacity - Volume of air inspired in a normal breath after we have forcibly exhaled the air remaining in the lungs.
Residual Volume - the air that is still trapped in our lungs after we have forcibly exhaled.
Total Lung Volume - the combination of vital capacity and residual volume. Spirometer P. 90-91 1. Work out your VC, RV and TLC - write it on the board.
2. Explain the differences in VC that can be noted between students in the class
3. Discuss how results from the spirometer could determine a person's suitability for endurance athletes. Respiration is the exchange of gases between the cells, blood and atmosphere. It involves four processes:
Pulmonary Ventilation (breathing) - Movement of air from the atmosphere into the alveoli.
Pulmonary Diffusion - Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and the blood.
Transport of Respiratory Gases - transportation of O2 and CO2 between the lungs and the tissue cells of the body via blood.
Internal Respiration - Exchange of gases between the blood capillaries and the tissue cells Circulatory System P. 92-93 The cardiovascular or circulatory system consists of the heat, blood and blood vessels. Its role is to deliver oxygen and nutrients to cells, remove wastes from cells and maintain the balance of water.
The CV system is primarily responsible for transporting the materials required by muscles to produce contractions, force and action. An inefficient delivery system will result in an inefficient supply of blood to and from muscles, and therefore inefficient movement Components of Blood P. 92 Blood is a specialised type of connective tissue. Blood accounts for about 8% of our total body weight. Healthy adult males have around 5-6 litres of blood and females 4-5. Its colour depends on the amount of oxygen it is carrying, varying from dark red (oxygen poor) to scarlet red (oxygen rich) Components of Blood Contin P. 93 Blood performs a number of functions related to transportation, protection and regulation:
Transports nutrients, O2, CO2, waste products and hormones.
Protects us from bleeding to death (clotting) and protects us from disease (by destroying invasive organisms) and toxic substances (alcohol).
Acts as a regulator of temperature and the water contents in cells.
The liquid portion of blood is a straw-coloured substance called plasma. It makes up 55% of blood volume (91.5% of it is water, the rest nutrients, wastes, proteins). The other 45% is made up of formed elements Components of Blood Contin P. 93-94 Take notes on Erthrocytes (RBC), Leucocytes (WBC), Thrombocytes (Platelets). Questions for Homework
1. Describe the anatomical structures involved in pulmonary ventilation.
2. In the context of respiration, explain what is meant by the term 'pressure gradient'. Homework Questions for Homework
1. Describe the anatomical structures involved in pulmonary ventilation.
2. In the context of respiration, explain what is meant by the term 'pressure gradient'. Structure of the Heart P. 94 The cardiovascular system provides the pump for circulating blood to all the cells of the body. As blood flows through the tissues of the body, O2 and nutrients are dropped off and CO2 and wastes are picked up. The heart is the pump, and it beats daily for our whole lives without a rest. Structure of the Heart 1. Cut and Paste Diagram of Heart.
2. Write the following sub-headings and explain what they are/do: Atrium, Ventricle, Septum, Tricuspid Valve, Bicuspid (mitral) Valve, Aorta, Pulmonary Arties, Pulmonary Vein, Superior Vena Cave, Inferior Vena Cava
(Page 95 of text). Blood Vessels P. 96 Arteries - Carry blood away from the heart. Thick elastic walls because blood is pumped through them at high pressure in surges (heartbeats/pulses). The arteries become smaller at their ends, blood then passes through arterioles and into capillaries.
Capillaries - Very small networks of vessels through which nutrients are exchanged between the blood and cells. They lie between arterioles and venules, connecting both systems. Blood Vessels (Contin) P. 96 Veins - Carry blood from tissues to the heart. The small veins at the end are called venules. The walls of veins are thinner and less elastic than artery walls, because pressure decreases as the blood gets closer to the heart. Contraction of muscles helps assist the blood to stream back to the heart (DVT). Valves prevent the blood from flowing back the wrong way. http://126.96.36.199/secondary/Physical%20education/heart_e.htm Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation P. 97 The heart is a double pump that serves 2 circulations.
Pulmonary Circulation - circulates blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs and then back to the heart.
Systemic Circulation - pumps blood from the left side of the heart to all body tissues, then back to the right side of the heart. P. 97 Blood Pressure BP is the force that exerts on the walls of blood vessels. It is expressed in terms of millimetres of mercury (mmHg). In a resting young adult, BP rises to around 120mmHg during systole (contraction) and to 80 mmHg during diastole (relaxation). This is considered normal range plus or minus 10. During exercise of increasing intensity, BP changes with the increase in cardiac output:
Systolic BP increases in direct proportion to increases in intensity, thereby facilitating the delivery of blood. Exercise should be stopped if BP goes about 250mmHg
Diastolic BP changes very little during exercise. If it increases 15 mmHg or more above resting levels exercise should be stopped.
BP is usually measured using a stethoscope and a sphygmomanometer. P. 97 Aerobic Training Aerobic and Anaerobic Training P. 121 Aerobic exercise uses oxygen to help break down or metabolise energy sources to create movement. It is exercise performed at low-moderate intensity, at a pace that can continue for an extended period of time, as long as there is sufficient fuel. F.I.T.T Principle The FITT Principle is used to develop training regimens to improve aerobic fitness. P. 122 F.I.T.T Principle Continued The FITT Principle is used to develop training regimens to improve aerobic fitness.
F - Frequency - how often aerobic training should occur. Vary depending on needs.
I - Intensity - needs to have an effect on the cardiovascular system. 60-85% of Maximum Heart Rate.
T - Time - how long the aerobic training session should last. Once the correct intensity is reached, should be maintained for no less than 20mins. Best results are obtained from sessions of 30-60 mins in duration, over 6-8 weeks.
T - Type - Form of exercise, specificity. P. 123 Anaerobic Training Anaerobic exercise involves a workload that is intense (hard) and short in duration. It relies on stored energy in the body that can be used in the absence of O. It is short in duration due to the limited supply energy and production of lactic acid, which slows muscular contraction. Training needs to occur at 85% of MHR. P. 123 1. Analyse the sports of soccer and gymnastics by considering the amount and nature of anaerobic activity involved in each. Discuss the changing demands when considering different positions (forward/goal keeper) or apparatus (vault/floor)
You have 5 minutes to write an answer P. 124 Immediate Physiological Responses to Training Physiology is the function of living things, what are the physical functions occurring in our bodies. When an individual exercises, many physiological changes occur within the body. These range from a need for more oxygen in working muscles to an increase in body temperature. The following changes occur as a result of aerobic training:
HR - As intensity ^ so does HR
Ventilation Rate (VR) - at the beginning of PA there is an immediate ^ in VR, followed by a continuing gradual rise in depth and rate.
Stroke Volume (SV) - amount of blood ejected with each contraction of the heart ^. P. 125 Immediate Physiological Responses to Training Cardiac Output (Q) - Volume of blood pumped out of the heart per minute ^ measured by Q = SV x HR
Lactate Levels - An increase in intesity sees an increase in lactic acid.
Q and ventilation ^ to ensure that working tissues are supplied with enough O and nutrients, and to remove wastes. To assist in these processes, the body directs blood away from non-working areas of the body. P. 130 Motion Linear Motion Linear motion occurs when the human body, a human limb or an object propelled by a human moves in the same direction at the same speed over the same distance. Eg when running.
There are two types of linear motion:
When this movement takes place in a straight line, it is called rectilinear motion
When it takes place in a curved path it is called curvilinear motion What are some examples of each? P. 131 Linear Motion Linear Distance - Actual distance person or object travels from start to finish
Linear Displacement - Length in a straight line from start to finish
Motion can also be described as angular or rotary. This occurs when the human body, a limb, or an object propelled by a human moves along a circular path about a fixed point.
Sports movements are most commonly referred to as general motion - combination of linear and angular. What are some examples of angular motion? P. 131 - 132 Velocity and Speed Velocity measures the displacement of the body divided by the distance from point A to B.
Speed describes the magnitude of the speed of the body (how quickly it is moving), whereas velocity describes both magnitude and direction. Angular Motion P. 131 Acceleration Write your own notes for acceleration. Include your own examples similar to the ones given in the first sentences. P. 139 Fluid Mechanics Forces that operate in water and air environments. These forces affect how we move through the water or how we can move ourselves or projectiles through the air. Brainstorm
What are sports that are in or on water? P. 139 Flotation There are two forces that operate in water to determine buoyancy:
Buoyant Force - water pushing up on the body.
Weight Force - force of gravity pulling the body down.
Archimedes principle - a body that is partially or totally immersed will experience bouyancy that is equal to the weight of the volume of fluid displaced by that body. So, if the buoyant force is greater than the weight force, the body will float. Conversely, if the buoyant force is less than the weight force, the body will sink. P. 139 Centre of buoyancy The centre of buoyancy is at the centre of gravity of the water that the swimmer displaces. When the body is fully submerged, the COB of the swimmer will fall directly above the swimmer's COG. The COB and centre of mass will also change as a result of the movement changes, particularly the legs. P. 140 Fluid Resistance Forces act on us when we attempt to propel ourselves through water (drag force and lift force). Drag Force (resistance) Resistance that acts on a body as it moves through a fluid environment. Friction occurs when a body moves across the surface of another (Eg. hand or oar moving through water).
A difference in pressure occurs to the opposing sides of the body in the water and this propels the body forward. When swimming, a low pressure area is created in front of the hand and high pressure area forms behind the hand. As the hand pushes the water back, the drag forces propel the body forward. P. 140 Lift Force This force occurs perpendicular to the flow of water over the body when swimming. When performing and eggbeater kick, lift force is created as the legs alternately circle under the water creating pressure differences between the top and bottom of the leg and foot. The lift force acts to push the athlete upwards. Swimmers experience a lift force as they stroke the water, this pushes them above the surface.