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Transcript of HISTORICAL BACKROUND
Sancho, Den Nicochen
Peralta, Ron Van Rick
Palines, Kurt Russel
Soro, Lianne Erica
The Outside World
when Rizal was born
in the Philippines when Rizal was born
The Philippines during the 19th century under Spanish Rule
By the late 18th century, political and economic changes in Europe were finally beginning to affect Spain and, thus, the Philippines. Important as a stimulus to trade was the gradual elimination of the monopoly enjoyed by the galleon to Acapulco. The last galleon arrived in Manila in 1815, and by the mid-1830s Manila was open to foreign merchants almost without restriction. The demand for Philippine sugar and abaca (hemp) grew apace, and the volume of exports to Europe expanded even further after the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869.
Early in the 19th century, with the opening of the Suez canal in 1869
The Governor-General appointed by the Spanish monarch headed the central administration in Manila. He was the king’s representative in all state and in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines.
The judicial system during the time of Rizal was costly, partial and slow. Poor Filipinos had no access to the courts because they could not afford the heavy litigation expeses. Rizal's Family also became a victim of injustices in the Philippines. His mother was unjustly arrested and jailed without due process. The GOMBURZA priest were executed, thus becoming noble victims of the Spaniards injustices.
The main local government units were the provinces (alcaldias), headed by the alcalde mayor or provincial governor, who exercised executive and judicial functions. The alcalde mayor was considered the most corrupt government official then in the Philippines; he was the administrator, judge, and military commandant, with the privilege of engaging in and monopolizing trade, called indulto de commercio.
The alcaldes mayores bought goods from the natives at low prices and sold these back to the natives in times of scarcity at much higher prices. Nobody dared file a complaint against them, though, because they were also the provincial judges at that time.
The provinces were divided into towns or pueblos. Each pueblo was headed by a gobernadorcillo or town mayor. As his position was honorary, no salary was given to him, but he was entitled to two pesos a month. He was responsible for the collection of taxes. To ensure the collection and remittance of such taxes, he was required to mortgage his properties to the government at the beginning of his term of office.
Each town was divided into barrios of barangays. Each barangay was headed by a cabeza de barangay, whose main function was the maintenance of peace and order in the barrio and the collection of taxes and tributes from the barrio's residents.
It was relatively peaceful in the Philippines at about the time that Jose Rizal was born. Elsewhere in the world, the Europe born from the congress of Vienna (1814) was undergoing a political upheaval that was to lead to series of wars and revolutions and the alignment of the powers in the first world war. Among the other colonies of the rulers of the old regime,
the seeds of democracy that
napoleon Bonaparte had shown far
and wide were either taking root or
had broken through the sod of subjugation.
By the time Don Francisco Rizal joyfully announced the coming of his seventh child,
a boy , Spain had lost her colonies in the new world. Gone were her possessions in South America. Mexico became an independent country in 1821. The last galleon from Acapulco ended its
voyage in 1815.
The spanish colors had been
banished from chile, Colombia, and
peru as early as the first quarter of the 19th century. All that Spain held on to of her far-flung empire were Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines. About two years before the birth of Rizal, Spain made some headway in her conquest of Morocco in North Africa. Elsewhere, though, her position was tottering(orresa, sixto).
The international affairs were unsettled in the year of Rizal’s birth. The American Civil War broke out on April 14, 1861 and was to immerse the United States in conflict for four years. In Russia, Czar Alexander II made peace with Britain, France, and Turkey and declared
the emancipation of the serfs.
Earlier, on January 11, 1861,
Benito Juarez led his victorious band of Mexican revolutionaries into Mexico City and put an end to the French adventure in the Western hemisphere. About seven years earlier, Commodore Perry opened two Japanese ports to foreign commerce, and in 1867, Mutsohito inaugurated the Meiji Era, bringin down the curtains on the centuries-old rule of the shogunate.
It was a period of great creative activity in America. These names were dominant in American literature when Rizal was a child: Emerson, Holmes, Longfellow, Whittier, Lowell, Hawthorne, Whitman, Howells, and Harte.
Britanica ruled the waves
at the time. After the downfall of napoleon, England became the world’s strongest power. Under Queen Victoria, she went to war in Crimea and stayed Russia from grabbing turkey. Disraeli and Gladstone spoke for England, hastened the birth of universal suffrage, and increased democracy in that part of the world. The Industrial Revolution was at its Height.
was the transition to new
manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, improved efficiency of water power, the increasing use of steam power, and the development of machine tools. It also included the change from wood and other bio-fuels to coal.
Textiles were the dominant industry of the Industrial Revolution in terms of employment, value of output and capital invested. The textile industry was also the first to use modern production methods.
In the field of English letters,
the Victorian era, which roughly encompasses the last three quarters of the 19th century, gave the world such writers as Dickens, Thackeray, Eliot, Tennyson, and Shaw. The age was conservative in its attitude towards the society and art and was a departure from the preceding Romanic revolutionary period. It was the centure of schelling, schopenhauer, spencer, nietzshe, and bergson. In 1859, Darwin published
his Origin of species and began a
revolution in thought.
In science, chemistry and
physics were making great strides.
In the experiments of Helmholtz, Joule,
and Thomson, thermodynamics was born. Franhofer, Focault, Bunsen, and Kirchoff were probing into the nature of spectra and light. Faraday introduced electrolysis, and electromagnetism cropped up in science journals. Mendelyeev, working on the molecular composition of elements, came up with a theory on atomic weight. It was likewise a period that saw the beginnings of synthetic organic drugs, organic chemistry, and the discoveries of de Latour and Shwann in biology. Pasteur,
Lamarck, and Earlier had a
cquainted the world.
The exact time of Rizal's birth is not quite clear, but it was between 11 and 12 o'clock on the night of June 19, 1861. Rizal's sister Narcisa recalled that her illustrious brother came into this world at exactly midnight, "with members of the family and relatives around"(guerrero, 1998).
The birthplace, Calamba, was a quite pueblo of 4,000 people. At that time, the
or seat of government of Laguna, where Calamba is located, was Pagsanjan, headed by an
who was aided in his administration by native authorities from the
(the traditional ruling and land-owing class). A good part of Laguna then, including Calamba, was proprietary land belonging to the dominican order (Bowring, 1859)
Manila at the time was known "for the splendor of its religious processions; for the excellence of its cheroots, which, to the east of the Cape of Good Hope, [were] generally prefeffed to the cigars of Havana; while the less honorable characteristics of the people [were] known to be a universal love of gambling, which [was] exhibited among the Indian races by a passion for cockfighting, an amusement that had been made a productive source of revenue by the state."
The decade after the first half f the 19th century saw the opening of the Philippines ports to foreign trade eight years after Rizal was born. Foreign firms were established in Manila, and trade and agricultural development in the islands, notably in sugar and hemp, begin to find incentives.
The dress of the period for men consisted of a stylized version of the Chinese shirt, cut along lines of the present-day
and European trousers. The women still wore the traditional
but had also come to wear the
, which was topped by a loose-sleeved
for less informal occasions. The old men tied handkerchieves around their heads and drank
Travel for the well-to-do was by carriages on roads and by launches in rivers and bays. Where the way was rugged, the rich traveler could either continue his way on horseback with a retinue or nestle inside a palanquin borne by the
. The foreigner was received with a fabulous hospitality, especially when he had been recommended by the authorities and patronized by the friars. Since inns were almost nonexistent in the towns then, a VIP was usually lodged in the house of a prominent citizen, in the
, or in the mayor's residence. Every big festive affair in the province was climaxed by the dancing of the
As for the status of education in the Philippines two years before Rizal was born, the author of
A Visit to the Philippine Islands
pronounced it as "not much different from that during monkish ages". The enrollment at the University of Santo Tomas was pegged at 1,000 students, all of whom wrestled with a curriculum that included theology, the canon and civil law, metaphysics, and grammar. In the
and lower schools, the educational fare consisted of philosophy (scholatics), rhetoric, and Latin. Thee was a finishing school for girls, a nautical school, and an academy for those inclined to the fine arts.
Rizal was born during the administration of Governor Jose Lemery E. Ibarrola Ney Y Gonzales at the time when the mother country, Spain, was chalking up a record in internal politics changes. Between 1834 and 1862, the Spanish government had four constitutions, 28 parliaments, and 59 ministers.The reigning monarch when Rizal was born was Isabella II, whose rule has been described as "a confused conflict bet. the attempts of the court to rule despotically with a mere pretence of a
, and the growing wish of the Spaniards for a parliamentary government, or at least the honest capable government they hoped the parliament would give them."
An indication of smouldering unrest in the Philippines then was the installation during the Spanish colonial rule of politico-military governments in Visayas and Mindanao. A few months before Rizal was born, in April 1861, the Jesuits were given Mindanao as a mission field. Meanwhile, the operations against the Moros of Sulu were continued.
Rizal lived at a time marked by profound advances in every aspects of human endeavor and that was too soon see the birth of a new Philippine middle class. Such class became the enlightened segment of the Filipino society that was to stir up trouble for Spain. The class, which included Rizal' folks, consisted of natives who had education and financial means. Their carriages came from England, their pianos from Germany, their liquors from France, their furniture from China, and their glassware from Spain. They also sent their children to Manila schools and to colleges abroad.
CONGRESS OF VIENNA (1814)
The last galleon from Acapulco ended its voyage in 1815
Czar Alexander II
He was the Emperor of Russia from 2 March 1855 until his assassination in 1881. He was also the King of Poland and the Grand Prince of Finland.
(21 March 1806 – 18 July 1872) was a Mexican lawyer and politician of Zapotec origin from Oaxaca who served as the president of Mexico for five terms: 1858–1861 as interim, then 1861–1865, 1865–1867, 1867–1871 and 1871–1872 as constitutional president. He resisted the French occupation of Mexico, overthrew the Second Mexican Empire, restored the Republic, and used liberal measures to modernize the country.
Benito Pablo Juárez García
In the second half of the 19th century,
the impressionist school of painting, based in France, emerged. While Rizal, a student then, was trying to out his hand at painting. Honore Daumier, Edouard Manet, Renoir, Degas Cezanne, Gauguin, Van Gogh, and matisse were carving out their respective niches in the world of art, In Italy, the Dream of Cavour was becoming a reality. On March 17, 1861, the kindly King Victor Emmanuel ascended the throne of the kingdom of Italy, but Italy’s troubles had just begun. In 1862, a year after Rizal was born, Bismarck was named the chancellor of Germany.
Governor Jose Lemery E. Ibarrola Ney Y Gonzales