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james platon

on 15 November 2011

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OD practitioner refers to at
least three sets of people...
Those people specializing in OD as a profession
Internal and External Consultants
offer professional services to organization clients, including top managers, functional department heads, and staff groups.
Professionals from other disciplines who apply OD practices
people specializing in fields related to OD
reward systems, organization design, total quality, information technology, and business strategy.
managers and administrators who have gained competence in OD and who apply it to their own work areas.
The external practitioner is someone not previously associated with the client system.
Internal practitioner is already a member of the organization: a top executive, an organization member who initiates change in his or her work group, or a member of the human resources or organization development department.
Texas Instruments, Motorola, and General Electric, have instituted in-house training programs for managers to learn how to develop and change their work units.
Procter & Gamble have trained and rotated managers into full-time OD roles so that they can gain skills and experience needed for higher-level management positions.
Competencies of an OD Practitioner
1. Intrapersonal skills- self awareness
OD is a highly uncertain process requiring constant adjustment and innovation, practitioners must have active learning skills and a reasonable balance between their rational and emotional sides
OD practice can be highly stressful and can lead to early burnout, so practitioners need to know how to manage their own stress.
2. Interpersonal skills
Ability to work with others and groups
Practitioners must create and maintain effective relationships with individuals and groups within the organization
3. General consultation skills
Ability to manage consulting process
OD starts with diagnosing an organization or department to understand its current functioning and to discover areas for further development.
OD Practitioner should know how to engage organization members in diagnosis, how to help them ask the right questions, and how to collect and analyze information.
4. Organization development theory
Knowledge of change processes
The last basic tool OD practitioners should have is a general knowledge of organization development
Role Demands on OD Practitioners
1. Position
Organization development professionals have positions that are either
internal or external
to the organization.
Internal consultants
are members of the organization and often are located in the human resources department.
They may perform the OD role exclusively, or they may combine it with other tasks, such as compensation practices, training, or labor relations.
External consultants
are not members of the client organization; they typically work for a consulting firm, a university, or themselves.
Organizations generally hire external consultants to provide a particular expertise that is unavailable internally and to bring a different and potentially more objective perspective into the organization development process.
During entry process:

Internal consultants
have clear advantages.
They have ready access to and relationships with clients.
Know the language of the organization, and have insights about the root cause of many of its problems. This allows internal consultants to save time in identifying the organization's culture, informal practices, and sources of power.
They have access to a variety of information, including rumors, company reports, and direct observations.
In addition, entry is more efficient and congenial, and their pay is not at risk.
External consultants
however, have the advantage of being able to select the clients they want to work with according to their own criteria.
Differences between Internal & External consultants at each stage of Action research process
contracting phase
Less formal for internal consultants
Less worry about expenses, but there is less choice about whether to complete the assignment.
Diagnosis process
Internal consultants
already know most organization members and enjoy a basic level of rapport and trust.
External consultants
often have higher status than internal consultants, which allows them to probe difficult issues and assess the organization more objectively.
intervention phase
Although both Internal & External must rely on valid information, free and informed choice, and internal commitment for their success,
Internal consultant's
strong ties to the organization may make him or her overly cautious particularly when powerful others can affect a career.
IC may lack certain skills and experience in facilitating organizational change.
IC may have some small advantages in being able to move around the system and cross key organizational boundaries.
2. Marginality
-Ability to straddle boundaries

Those who are good at it seem to have personal qualities of low dogmatism, neutrality, open-mindedness, objectivity, flexibility, and adaptable information-processing ability.
3. Emotional Demands
Emotional Intelligence

Emotional intelligence
refers to the ability to recognize and express emotions appropriately, to use emotions in thought and decisions, and to regulate emotion in oneself and in others.

Use of Knowledge and Experience:
The professional OD role has been described in terms of a continuum ranging from client-centered (using the client's knowledge and experience) to consultant-centered (using the consultant's knowledge and experience
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