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Creative Industries Infrastructure- Part 1

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Andrew Dyce

on 26 September 2018

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Transcript of Creative Industries Infrastructure- Part 1


The creative industries are based on individual creativity, skill and talent. They are industries that have the potential to create wealth and jobs through developing intellectual property.
Creative Industries
Intellectual property (IP) refers to creations of the mind: inventions, literary and artistic works, and symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce.
Creative Industries can be categorised in to a number of specific areas.
For example, fashion design.

Can you identify the other sectors of the creative industries?

Work in groups of 4
Film and video
Performing arts
Computer and video games
Television and radio
Designer fashion

2.8 million people are employed in the creative industries or in creative roles in other industries (DCMS, 2016)
UK Perspective

5.2% of Total Economy
108,000 Creative Businesses
(DCMS, 2016)


Rights relating to creativity/culture:

'freedom of expression'
'free to practice of art and culture and to creative work'
'respect for culture and its autonomy and for cultural identity'
Contributes nearly £5 billion annually to the national economy
Employs around 130,000 people
UK is the fourth largest market in the world
UK is second only to the USA as a source of repertoire/copyright
Music Perspective
Scotland Perspective
Intellectual Property
In groups of 4, discuss the following:
Worth £3.7 billion to Scotland's economy

(Scottish Government, 2016)
Discuss in groups of 4, the benefits of
the Creative Industries to the UK.

Why would the Creative Industries receive government support?
Promoting Scottish culture
Providing cultural experiences
Supporting local and creative economies

What are the benefits of this?
How are these benefits actually delivered to tax-payers in Scotland?

Copyright/Designs and Patents 1988
Berne Convention (1886) - protection of literary and artistic works
Rome Convention (1961)- performers, producers and phonograms and broadcast organisations.
Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988
Copyright example, in groups of 4.....
What is copyright?
The right to copy.
The owner has the right to legal protection
for original works.
How do you get copyright?
Any original work, in a tangible form, is automatically protected.
Quality of writing/musicianship
Fanbase (Data/Spinn Up)
Live performance
New country/jazz/soul duo, The Twinkles recently recorded a 12 track album with a producer in Dullwater Studios.

All 12 tracks were co-written by Alex-Leigh McCall and Lynsey Davidson, the vocalist and lead guitarist in the band. The Twinkles plan to release their album through a local record label, who they have signed a one album deal with.
For the album release the band has asked one of their friends, Dougie Black, to design the artwork and a new logo for the band which will be used on all future releases and merchandise.

The band has also designed their own original clothing which includes hats, jeans and t-shirts.
Can you identify areas of intellectual property and who owns that intellectual property?
Intellectual Property
12 recorded tracks
The Record Label/Producer
Dougie Black
There are 3 types of copyright in a recorded song:

The recording
Alex-Leigh McCall and Lynsey Davidson
Alex-Leigh McCall and Lynsey Davidson
Record labels seek the commercial
exploitation of recorded music.

Increasingly labels take income from other
areas of an artist's career.
Industry examples including roles, structures, funding and functions of industry sectors
What roles do labels perform?
How do they make money?
What would they look for before signing an artist?
Labels will look for:
In other words, they sell music and seek
some revenue from live/merch etc.

More commonly referred to as a 360 deal.
'collects and distributes money on behalf of record companies and performers'
Intellectual Property


Revenue streams
Before we begin:

Laptops/mobile phones
*Reading- Healthy Attendance (2013)
Age, occupation, education, area, economic status
Publishing companies exploit
songwriters music and seek sync/soundtrack/tv/mechanical licensing
Publishing companies will only be interested in:

Just like record labels, there are major and indie publishing companies.
One of their main sources of revenue is synchronisations.

This can be licensed exclusively, non exclusively, to varying companies.
Examples of Sync Agencies:

Secretary of state-
Jeremy Wright MP
National development agency for arts, screen and creative industries
National Performing Companies

Scottish Ballet
Scottish Opera
National Theatre
Royal Scottish National Orchestra
Scottish Chamber Orchestra
Minister for Culture and External Affairs
Fiona Hyslop MSP
Sponsored bodies who deliver cultural programmes?
Scotland will spend an estimated £360 million in 2016-17 on culture and heritage

(Scottish Government, 2015)
In Europe
Government and the Creative Industries....
Digital Economy Act
2010 amended 2017
Legislation to block illegal sites

Copyright in music
Sync revenue rose 9.4% in 2016 (IFPI)
Recap from Outcome 1 so far
Defining creative industries?
Role of government?
Protecting IP?
Cultural bodies?
Revenue streams from music IP?
Creative Industries Infrastructure

Revenue Streams
Creative Industries + Creative Occupations= Creative Economy
Module overview


The key characteristic of the creative industries is the generation and exploitation of IP/copyright.
The creative industries employ 11.4 million people in the EU, accounting for 5 per cent of the EU workforce.

Sweden has the highest proportion of its workforce employed in the creative industries (8.9 per cent), followed by Finland (8.2 per cent) and the UK (7.6 per cent).

The country with the highest number of creative industry workers is Germany (which has the largest total workforce in the EU), followed by the UK and France.

(Nesta, 2016)
The key characteristics of the creative industries are:

the generation of copyright/IP
exploitation of copyright/IP
These rights are typically licensed to third parties to generate revenue.
In most cases these are divided as follows:

The recording- licensed to a record company
Music and Lyrics- licensed to a publishing company
These rights are often traded between company to company and can be owned for various term lengths.
Read Blackboard article on
Max Martin/Martin Sandberg
In groups identify at least three music industry examples in Scotland which might:

grow the local/international economy
improve the quality of life for those in the region
employ people on a regular basis
Discuss what this organisation might do to support the creative industries?
Some examples of Creative Scotland supporting the creative industries:

Festival Interceltique
de Lorient, 2017
Xpo North, Inverness, 2017
Recent film production support
'Wish You Were Here'
UK Music*
The report features both national and regional figures and reveals the huge impact of music tourism on the UK economy.
These are the defining roles and features of any creative industry:
Economic, Employment and/or
Cultural benefits
The key individual who will begin this negotiation will be the
Music Supervisor
working on the film
Sync licenses are usually for Film, TV, Gaming or Ad usages.
Universal Music Publishing Group
Sony/ATV Publishing
Warner/Chappell Music
Sync deals will always involve at least two parties and often more.
This will include:

rights owner publisher/writer
label if applicable
film production company
For example:
Film sync
Worth noting that most publishing companies don't often refer to themselves as 'publishers'
Most of these have specialisms in different sync usages:

This process is usually referred to as 'clearance'.

Meaning that the composition can be used in the film.
These agencies usually also offer:
-bespoke compositions
-rights negotiations

For example: Susan Jacobs
Similar to Publishing, there are three majors and thousands of independent labels.
Majors- Universal Music Group, Sony Music and Warner Music
These majors dominate the sales of recorded music and own other labels, which are effectively departments and brands they own.
For example, Universal Music currently own all of the below and many others:

Capitol Records
Island UK/US
As of October 2017, these majors had the following share of UK recorded music revenues:
Universal Music 33.4%
Sony Music 20.6%
Warner Music 15.7%
As a comparison, the best performing independent label is XL/Beggars (1.1%)
DCMS, Creative Scotland, BFI,
British Council, Creative and
Cultural Skills, UK Music
Organisations within the creative industries
The Government’s long-held plan to force major broadband ISPs into issuing warning letters / emails to customers, specifically those suspected of having engaged in online copyright infringement got underway from early 2017.

Voluntary Copyright Alert Programme (VCAP)

The  Voluntary Copyright Alert Programme (VCAP), which forms part of the wider Creative Content UK initiative, is “voluntarily”

BT, Virgin Media, TalkTalk and Sky Broadband support this measure.
Full transcript