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Transcript of POLYPROPYLENE
What is PP?
Structure of PP
Properties of PP
Production of PP
Applications of PP
Reusing PP Containers
Recycling of PP
Recycling Process of PP
Health and Environmental Effects
Polypropylene, also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer. It is used in a wide variety of applications. Its molecular formula is (C3H6)n.
DESCRIPTION OF PP
1) Isotactic PP
2) Atactic PP
3) Syndiotactic PP
The very regular arrangement makes it possible for the chains to pack close together. It maximizes the amount of Van der Waals bonding. PP is quite strong.
The degree of crystallinity ranges from 40 to 70%. It has a melting point of 160 to 180°C and a high density relative to the atactic form.
This lack of regularity makes it impossible for the chains to lie closely together. So the Van der Waals attractions between them are weaker. Atactic PP is much softer with a lower melting point.
It is an amorphous rubbery material. The polymer exhibits poor strength and high tackiness.
This regularity means that the chains can pack closely. Van der Waals attractions will be fairly strong. However the attractions are not as strong as in isotactic PP. This makes syndiotactic PP softer and gives a lower melting point approximately 140°C with a density of 890 kg/m3.
PROPERTIES OF PP
- Light in weight
- Easy to produce
- Good chemical, fatigue and heat resistance
- Excellent dielectric properties
- High operational temperatures with high melting point
PRODUCTION OF PROPYLENE
The crude includes 11% of Naphtha.
It is sent to pyrolysis furnace at 750-900°C. After steam cracker, the cracked gas is separated. Propylene is obtained.
PRODUCTION OF PP FROM PROPYLENE
Ziegler-Natta or metallocene catalysts are used for the production of PP.
The PP manufacturing process is divided into three generations:
- 1st generation: Solvent polymerization process
- 2nd generation: Bulk polymerization process
- 3rd generation: Vapor phase polymerization process
3rd generation: Vapor phase polymerization process
APPLICATIONS OF PP
Disposal of plastic wastes
environmental pollution and problems
Recycling is a great
requires additional energy to process the item
most recycling centers do not accept PP
Reusable shopping bags
Some Reusing PP Tips
Reusable PP food containers
Use as sand box toys
Bottle Caps Put to Good Use
Spinning toys for kids
Keep your earings, clips,hair accessories in a margarine container
For growing herbs
pack lunch snacks
Secure a plastic bag
reuse for fantastic art projects
PP,PE,PS waste plastics can be utilized in road construction
Plastic waste is separated, cleaned and shredded
Aggregate is heated to 170°C and shredded plastics are added
Immediately hot bitumen is added and mixed well
Then this mixture is laid on the road
The binding property of plastic makes the road last longer
Normal bitumen road
damaged by heavy rain
Polymer-aggregate-bitumen mix road undamaged by heavy rain
RECYCLING of PP
Compared to production from oil and gases 88% energy reduction in energy is provided if PP is produced by recycling
Resin identification code:
PP Recycled into:
Clothing and Industrial fibres
Bins, Compost bins
Landscaping border stripping
05-09-452 Dilek Dönmez
05-09-479 Mine Meryem Şahin
05-09-524 Şeyma Akgül
05-09-462 Nilüfer Konukçu
REUSE of PP
RECYCLING PROCESS OF PP
Reprocessing by melting
Creating new products using the recycled PP
This involves accumulating used plastic products from the domestic municipal waste stream. This is usually mixed plastic waste in which all types of plastic products will be present
HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PP
Health hazards of PP are negligible at ambient temperatures because of the;
polymer’s high molecular weight
PP polymers have a low irritation and sensitization potential.
On the other hand, at processing temperatures irritating fumes and dust may cause soreness in the nose and throat.
Also, coughing may result.
The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and European Union (EU) regulations consider PP polymers as non-hazardous with regard to health hazards.
Complete combustion of PP generates only CO2 and H2O.
In terms of energy efficiency, PP is comparable in gross energy to produce to many other plastics used for packaging.
PP produces less solid waste by weight than PET, PS or PVC.
PP and HDPE produce significantly less CO2 equivalents by weight than PET, PS and PVC.
PP is 100% recyclable material unlike PVC.
In summary, there is clear evidence that PP is a safer, non-toxic and environmentally friendly.
Figure 2.Global plastics consumption based on percentage
Figure 1.Global propylene demand by derivative based on percentage
Figure 3.Global Polyolefin Consumption based on percentage in 2008
Figure 4.Global polypropylene consumption according to years
Figure 5.Global polypropylene consumption according to countries
Table 1. Recycling rates of PP according to years in the US (Jennifer Markarian, SpecalChem)
Figure 6.Recovery of plastic as percentage distribution in 2011
Figure 7.Amount of PP recycling by years
THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION
The sorting process involves separation of PP products from products made of other types of plastics, based on their recycling codes.
Tests for plastic Identification
The water test
In this step, paper labels and colored pails are removed, then the products are granulated and washed which gives rise to “clean flake”. This flake is converted to uniformly sized pellets for easy feeding into extruder or moulder.
Reprocessing by melting :
Here, the pellets are then fed into an extruder where it is melted at 240oC and cut into small granules which are now ready to use in making new products.
Creating new products using the recycled PP :
In this step, key parameters of the recycled material such as the melt flow index are measured to assess their suitability for use in different applications. Depending upon these properties, the recycled PP is moulded into various products.