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Creation of a Nation
Transcript of Creation of a Nation
A push effect is when people are driven out of their home (eg. by famine) whilst a pull effect is when people are drawn to a new area. It is believed that Aborigine's came to Australia from a list of 'push and pull' effects.It is believed that after the most recent Ice Age that the sea levels were as low as 100m. Australia had much more land making it more visible. It is believed by some scientists that Aborigines may have come from Africa.
There are many stories Aboriginal myths about about the origins of the Universe. Some stories are about how landmarks and creatures came to be and some are about their spirituality like emotions and how people are.
These myths and stories are their religion and they celebrate many rituals to honor them. These myths are like how the bible is to Catholics except rather than being written in a book, the stories are passed down generation by generation, the elders teach the children and many of these stories would be recited in ceremonies like when the children become adults. Each tribe may have different creation stories and they may celebrate them in different ways. These stories are known as 'dream time stories' and their God(s) are called creator beings. There are different terms of creators. First, there are creator beings- involved in creation of beings, landmarks, environment etc. Second, Ancestral beings, these people are known as direct ancestors of the tribe and of people living today. Third, Totemic Beings represent the original of an animal, plant or object as it was in the creation period.
The start of the film is an inside look of how the tribe was. There was an introduction of Alinta through a conversation with the elders talking about how she was to marry Murra.
When the children were on the beach they spotted two escaped European convicts washed up on the shore, the frightened children ran back to the tribe scared yelling that they saw a ghost. The adults went back to investigate and found the men. They called on ‘The clay faced man’ and the other ‘hair of fire’.
They brought back ‘The clay faced man’ and ‘hair of fire’ and cared for them until their health improved. Once they believed they were well enough they told them to leave, after begging for the Aborigines to let them stay as long as they abide by their laws.
After staying there for a while the ‘Clay faced man’ had sexually violated Alinta breaking a law they gave him a shield and Murra was the first to throw the spear because after all Alinta was his future wife, the ‘Clay faced man’ was eventually killed by an elder.
After a couple of years ‘Hair of fire’ was fluent in their tribal language and had become a part of their tribe. Alinta and Murra had gotten married and celebrated Alinta leaving the tribe for the first time. While they were gone, they spotted a couple of Europeans, they revealed to ‘Hair of fire’ that they planned to colonize Australia. The Europeans tried to make a deal with the Natives but the land was worthless for they didn’t have any currency, the Aborigine’s weren’t going to give up the land. ‘Hair of fire’ left with the Europeans after they made a deal that ‘Hair of fire’ would be granted freedom and not have a criminal record.
More time has passed and Alinta has had a child with Murra with another baby on the way. Alinta and the other women are hunting and gathering food when they come across some tents with a group of Europeans including ‘Hair of fire’. After an argument between one of the elders and ‘Hair of fire’ the elder Aborigine women was shot by a thunder stick (gun) leaving the Aborigine women to flee. After the rest of the tribe found out what had happened they confront the group of Europeans and kill ‘Hair of fire’.
Not long after they have a ritual for the elder who was shot Europeans come and attack the tribe killing everyone except for Alinta and her child because they were safely hiding whilst the battle was taking place.
Myall Creek Massacre
In 1838 a massacre took place in Myall Creek, NSW. Europeans had taken the lives of 28 Aborigine men, women and children. Details of the crime are the acts of psychopaths and sadists which are too brutal to describe.
The word of the massacre had gotten out among the criminals (the Europeans) boasting about the murders, three weeks later they were arrested and the men were taken into custody.
The first trial was in November 1838 and was based on thin evidence and was lacking because the criminals had removed the Aborigines bodies and were the only primary witness. It took the jury 15 minutes to pronounce the men not guilty.
The second trial was 10 days after the first and only 7 of the 10 men were prosecuted over just one Aboriginal boy. The 7 men were found guilty and were hung. For the first time in Australian history white men were punished for murder of Aboriginal people.
The first arrival or Europeans was by Captain James Cook in 1770 on an exploration journey then 18 years later the First Fleet arrived in Australia (1788). At first the Aborigines got on well with the Europeans, they shared food, 'clothes' and overall resources. Then when the First Fleet arrived the Aborigines were overwhelmed by all of these white people whom the majority of the people have never encountered, the Aborigines thought they were the spirits of their dead ancestors, if not dead, the thought they were all female due to the lack of facial hair. Soon more and more Europeans came onto they started to have expectations of the Aborigines to be like them. They Europeans made the Aborigines dress like them, go to church (and believe in their God), abide by their laws and speak their language. This wasn't fair to the Aborigines for the Aborigines had been there for thousands of years only to be overruled in a number of years. As more time went by and Australia started to grow and start an economy and making permanent residence the more conflict began. When laws came about the Aborigines had the short end of the stick, for one, not understanding them. Aborigines would go onto the Europeans farms take crops and animals from their residence. The Europeans saw this as stealing, which is why some people were there in the first place, but the Aborigines didn't think they were doing any thing wrong, in their minds they believed that it was from the land, it was natures not as some possession.
By Hollie Griffin
Creation of a Nation
Free settlers are people who have migrated to an area and established permanent residence.
-Between 1831 and 1851, about 200,000 people emigrated to Australia.
-In 1828, convicts made up over 40% of the population, by 1851 they made up less than 2%.
-The first free settlers were generally well off. Along with pardoned convicts and retired military personnel took advantage of the land and opportunities on offer.
-Many started pushing beyond the colony boundaries, taking possession of whatever good land they could find. These people were called squatters.
-Schemes were created to encourage people to migrate.
-Migrants generally came from Britain and Ireland but soon there were some from Canada, Greece, China and Germany.
Convicts were the main reason for the discovery and settlement in Australia. Between 1788 and 1868 an estimated 150,000 convicts had been transported to Australia, 16% were women and only few could read or write.
There were many types of convicts, such were:
- Worst of convicts, hung around in gangs.
-Chained together and built roads, public buildings, etc.
-Complete full term of sentence. Most become farmers and graziers.
-Convicts who behaved well enough that they are released ahead of their release date. If fully pardoned they can go back to Britain, if conditionally pardon they still have to remain in Australia.
-Well behaved convicts who were aloud to work for themselves. A ticket-of-leave could be taken away for bad behavior, then they'd have to return working for the government.
-Well behaved convicts who were 'loaned' to free settlers.
-The arrangement reduced government costs as the free settlers fed and clothed the convicts.
A gold miner is someone who digs or pans for gold in a goldfield (aka. Mining).
-Gold had been discovered in 1851 in NSW, this caused a buzz of activity over the next 40 years or so. Gold had a major effect on the economy and social structure on the colonies.
-The gold rush in Victoria in the 1850's was one of a number in the later half the nineteenth century.
-There had been reports since 1823 of gold finds in NSW and Victoria but, the authorities didn't want this to be publicised. If news got out, it would've been had to control to prisoners.
-By the end of 1852, the gold rush had brought in over 90,000 new comers.
Australia officially became a nation on the 1st of January, 1901. This was 113 years after the First Fleet arrived. Australia originally was not fond of the idea of becoming one nation but they soon discovered that the benefits out weighed the losses.
In 1886, the Federal Council of Australia was created and a meeting was attended by delegates from the 6 colonies of Australia, New Zealand and Fiji. This was put in order to agree to request Britain ensure us that they would defend us if ever threatened.
In 1889, the premier of New South Wales, Sir Henry Parks, a strong supporter of Federation, out spoke to a hall full of locals in Tenterfield challenging them (the locals) to think 'national'.
In 1891, a national identity was emerging. An Australian Convention was held, it was attended by the head politicians of the 6 colonies and New Zealand. The main purpose of this was create a draft of a national constitution. There was a serious economic recession and the draft of the constitution faltered.
In 1893, the troubles of import and exportation was a major increasing issue. Delegate Quick from Victoria proposed that each colonial governments asks the voters to elect representatives for a Federal Constitutional Convention.
Between 1897 and 1898, a Federal Constitutional Convention was held, the representative from each colony (chosen by the voters), the convention was held for each colony to take back a draft of the institution 5 colonial governments. The draft plan saw a two-house federal parliament with an upper house of review that would represent states equally and protect rights. Delegates came together once again in Sydney in September (then once again in January in Melbourne, 1898) to bring to attention and reconsider amendments from the colonial parliaments such as; free trade between states, the national management of immigration and defense. On the 16th of March, 1898, the convention agreed on a draft constitution to be put to the voters of all colonies (even though at the time Western Australia and Queensland parliaments were still to agree).
Between 1899 and 1900 votes had been cast and then some re-votes and Western Australia (again being stubborn) delayed the vote but was eventually completed by July 1900. The majority of the voters had voted in favor of becoming a nation, becoming part of the commonwealth. State (formerly colonial) constitutions were recognized in the proposed federal constitution but, federal laws would overrule any state law where the was a common issue.
World War 1
Austria/Hungary want more land whilst Serbia and Bosnia don't agree because they both want to be an independent government. A terrorist kills the Austrian price Archduke Ferdinand (June 28, 1914) whilst he and his wife, Sophie, were visiting Bosnia- the assassin was a Serb so Austria blames Serbia and wants them to punish Gavrilo Princip, the assassin, but, Serbia is happy about the death of Prince Archduke and feel as though no punishment is needed, rather a congratulation. This creates a spark that Germany wanted to start a war, at this time Germany basically controlled Austria/Hungary, so Austria/Hungary declared war on Serbia (July 28, 1914) leaving Germany to join from the Triple Alliance. Russia soon enters the war (July 30, 1914) to help Serbia. France soon joins (August 3, 1914) in to help Russia and Bosnia. Britain tried to come up with a more peaceful solution and avoid war. So far, Britain is not directly involved but this changes when Germany invades Belgium (a neutral country) to make a surprise attack on France. Britain came in to defend Belgium. Britain declared war on Germany on the 4th of August 1914, later Canada, New Zealand and Australia joined in to help the 'Mother land'. The group of Serbia, Russia, Britain and France were apart of the Triple Entente.
At the time the world war broke out, Australia had only been a nation for 13 years, like many other countries, Australia had no direct reason to be involved in the conflict in Europe. World War 1 was significant in Australian history because this was the first time Australians could come together to defend their nation. Australians had their own uniforms, obeyed rules from their own officers, and fought and died under their own flag. At first when the government called for 20,000 volunteers for the AIF (Australian Imperial Force), they received 50,000 responses.
During World War 1, 4 out of every 10 Australian men between the ages of 18-45 joined up. Approximately 330,000 were sent to fight overseas. More than 59,000 were killed and another 167000 were wounded and 4000 were taken prisoner. The Army Nursing Service saw more than 2000 women serving overseas with 21 dying aboard.
The team formed was ANZAC ( Australia and New Zealand Army Corps).
ANZAC forces were under the command of Lieutenant General William Birdwood. The training for the army was based Egypt because England had a lack of training and accommodation facilities. The British War Council suggested that Germany best be defeated by attacks in their allies, Austria, Hungary and Turkey. Originally, the planned attack on Turkey was supposed to be a naval operation. However, following several abortive attempts to force the Dardanelles in February and March, the British Cabinet agreed that land forces could be used.
At the dawn of April 25th 1915, the ANZACs landed landed north of Gaba Tepe, now known as Anzac Cove, while the British forces landed Cape Helles on the Gallipoli Peninsula. The aim of doing this was to capture the Turkish forts commanding the narrow straits. The campaigne was a heroic but costly failure and by December plans were drawn out to evacuate the entire force from Gallipoli. On the 19th and 20th of December, the evacuation ANZAC and Suvla was completed with the last British troops leaving Cepe Helles by January 8, 1916.
The Turks had previous knowledge that the ANZACs' were going to arrive, on the day of the landing the Ottoman Captain Faik, observes the silhouettes of the British Royal Navy Fleet 2km from shore. He continues observing until 3am. Faik messages his commander, Major Ismet of his loss of vision. At this point the Turks were ready with many ottomans across Gallipoli's peninsula with men hiding in trenches ready for the battle. At 3am ships start to arrive carrying the ANZACs'. This gives the soldier 90 minutes to arrive before daylight The soldiers were carried by steam boats cast off from the battle ships. The steam boats shift gradually north and the landing boats (holding 40 men each) begin to crowd together, the 9th battalion crosses over to the 10th battalion boats, the landing formation is lost, at around 4am a flash of sparks escapes is from one of the steam boat funnels, a beacon is lit on land as a result the scene is illuminated the first wave of the covering force is exposed. As the 9th and 10th battalion come ashore to Gaba Tepe (now known as Anzac Cove) the Turks are already attacking them, some soldiers at this point are already injured or dead. As the men come to shore Lieutenant Kernel Price Weir is there to help direct the soldiers. If the men are not dead, they are expected to climb up the hill towards gun-fire.
-Humanities Alive 3, Chapter 1, Links with the land, pages 2-3
-Youtube Clip- ABC News (Australia), September 23, 2011
-Trishian's Oz, 1996, Aborigines, The First Australians, First encounter with white settlers, The first misunderstanding, Conflict- http://panique.com.au/trishansoz/aborigine/aborigin.html
-Creative Commons, 2001, google images- http://search.creativecommons.org/
-Picture 1- first contact aborigines, Wikipedia, the Gweagal tribe.
-Picture 2- first contact aborigines, Wikipedia, group of Aborigines.
-Picture 3- first contact aborigines, Wikipedia, Aboriginal farmers, 1858.
-Picture 4-first contact aborigines, Wikipedia, Full Blooded, 1860.
Alinta, Women of the Sun, Bob Weis, July 1981.
-Picture- Women of th Sun, Wikipedia, July 1981.
Myall Creek Massacre-
Creative Spirits, Myall Creek Massacre (1838), Historic Background, The events of Myall Creek Massacre on June 10, 1838, Investigating Myall Creek Massacre, 2000, http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/history/myall-creek-massacre-1838
-Australia on trial, ABC Television, 2011
-Youtube, Myall Creek Massacre, Rebecca Cox, October 4, 2010
Humanities Alive 3,convicts, pages 36-37
-Picture-Creative Commons, 2001, google images- Convicts, Wikipedia, Convicts at Botany Bay, 1789.
Humanities Alive 3,free settlers, pages 46-47
-Picture-Creative Commons, 2001, google images- Free settler, Wikipedia, Settler, Baker River, 1935.
Humanities Alive 3, Gold miners, pages 54-55
-Picture-Creative Commons, 2001, google images- Gold miners, Wikipedia, Gold Rush, 1855.
-Australian Government, Australia's Federation, The Constitution, the monarch and the governor-general, http://australia.gov.au/about-australia/our-government/australias-federation
-Humanities Alive 3, Count down to federation, pages 93-94
-Picture- Creative Commons, 2001, google images- Australian federation, Wikipedia, Queen Victoria, 1882
-Youtube Clip- A continent for a nation- Australian Federation, Matt Smith, July 28, 2009.
World War 1-
-Humanities Alive 4, The causes of World War 1, pages 4-7.
-Humanities Alive 4 Australia goes to war, pages 10-11.
-Retroactive 9: Australian Curriculum for History, chapter 7, Australia's involvement, pages 270-271.
-Youtube Clip- World War 1- How did it start?, Watchmojo.com, June 25, 2010.
-Swirk.com.au,, The landing, 2014- http://www.skwirk.com/p-c_s-14_u-42_t-46_c-134/the-gallipoli-campaign/nsw/the-gallipoli-campaign/australia-and-world-war-i/gallipoli-and-the-anzacs
-Army, WW1 Gallipoli, http://www.army.gov.au/Our-history/History-in-Focus/WWI-Gallipoli
-ABC, Gallipoli, videio 1,- Captain Faik sees silhouette of ships 2-The covering force are towed to shore, 3 -The landing of the Covering force.
-Picture-Creative Commons, 2001, google images- Gallipoli Cemetery, Wikipedia, Gallipoli cemetery, 18 May, 2011.
-Youtube Clip- Gallipoli landing, Diary of a Gallipoli soldier, Tim Young, May 3, 2012.