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Expansion and Contraction in Solids, Liquids and Gases
Transcript of Expansion and Contraction in Solids, Liquids and Gases
In a solid, expansion occurs when it is heated. According to the particle theory of matter, when particles are heated they move faster and expand. An example of expansion in a solid is railroad tracks and how they leave spaces between the track, so during the summer they have room to expand in the hot weather. If there was no space, the tracks would break because the particles expand and take up more space so there is no space for them to move. In a solid, contraction occurs since the object is cooling. The particles move slower causing the object to contract. An example of contraction in a solid is a metal hoop and ball, when it is cooled, the copper ball's particles move closer together and take up less space so it fits through the hoop but when it is heated, the copper ball's particles expand and don't fit through the hoop because they take up more space. Another example of contraction in a solid is a black eye. If you put ice on it, the ice's cold particles cause your skins particle's to contract because they are cooled which then causes the black eye to look smaller.
Expansion and Contraction in Solids
In a liquid, expansion occurs when the liquid is heated, the particles move around each other faster, and expand . An example of expansion in a liquid is oceans, in hot climates the water expands and the sea level rises because the sun above it heats it also the hot weather. Also, contraction happens in a liquid. This happens when a liquid is cooled the particles slow down and contract, an example of contraction in a liquid is a thermometer. When a thermometer is taken out of your mouth it contracts and the liquid inside falls back to the bottom because your mouth has a lot of heat which causes the temperature to rise. But when it is taken out since it is colder outside your mouth, the particles contract and the temperature drops..
Expansion and Contraction in a Liquid
In a gas expansion occurs when it is heated. The particles move faster and the gas expands. An example of expansion is an explosive can at home. If you heat the can, the particles move faster and take up more space, but there is no more room for the gas to expand so the can explodes. In a gas, contraction occurs when it is cooled. The particles move closer together and slow down causing them to contract. An example is when you blow up a basketball in the summer it is full of air but in the winter when it is left in the cold the particles in it contract and take up less space so the basketball feels like it needs to be pumped again.
Expansion and Contraction in a Gas
expansion in a solid
contraction in a solid
this is another example of expansion and contraction in a solid. During the winter the metal part on this bridge contracts and the two parts move farther apart. But in the summer it expands and the the parts almost touch!
By: Ethan, Daniel and Rachel
Expansion in a liquid
When engine coolant is filled to the top in a car's engine on a cold day, it is contracted. But as soon as the temperature rises, the particles of the coolant expand causing the level of the coolant to expand which then overflows and spills. When the engine cools and the temperature drops, the level of coolant goes down and it would appear that the level of the coolant went down.
Contraction in a liquid
Expansion in a gas
Contraction in a gas
Another example of expansion and contraction in a gas is an air mattress. When you are camping and you blow up the mattress with the pump in the summer, the particles move faster and it fills with air so you can sleep on it and it looks full. But when you look at the mattress in the winter it looks less full because of the temperature outside which causes particles to cool and take up less space so the mattress looks less full!
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Also, a helium balloon needs warm temperatures to keep the helium particles expanded and the balloon floating. When exposed to cold air, a helium balloon will deflate and sink to the ground because as the helium particles come closer together, they take up less space and the amount of helium looks smaller. If exposed to warm air again, the helium balloon will fill up again.