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Earth (Endogenic Processes

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Trishia Afundar

on 26 June 2016

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Transcript of Earth (Endogenic Processes

Volcanism

Photos
Magma
Tectonic Forces and Processes
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As the plates continue to move due to the convection of Earth's layers, rock are continuously exposed to stress.
The eruption of molten rock called
magma
onto Earth's surface through a vent.
Volcano
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Right conditions to generate magma:
A vent in the surface of the Earth where magma is expelled during volcanic eruption
Geothermal Gradient
The rate of temperature change averages at 20 to 30 degrees celcius per kilometer.
Heat
1. Heat from the accretion of Earth during its own formation.
The Cataclysmic 1991 Eruption of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines
Folding
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Earth
The second-largest volcanic eruption of this century, and by far the largest eruption to affect a densely populated area, occurred at Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines on June 15, 1991. The eruption produced high-speed avalanches of hot ash and gas, giant mudflows, and a cloud of volcanic ash hundreds of miles across. The impacts of the eruption continue to this day.
Endogenic Processes
Folding in rocks occur when they are subjected to tectonic forces from opposite sides. Compressional stress causes squeezing. It results in the appearance of physical folds called anticline and syncline.

Sources:
2. Frictional heating, caused by the sinking of core materials to the center of the planet.
3. Heat from the decay of radioactive elements.
Creation and discharge of magma
The driving force of volcanism is plate tectonic motion.
Addition of heat
Decrease in pressure
Change in composition of the mantle
Subduction
Deformation
refers to any change in shape or size of rock as response to the stress. It may occure by either folding or faulting
Anticline and Syncline
Mt. Himalayas
Faulting
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The result of the fracture or displacement of rock layer or strata along a fault plane. There are different types of faults based o the relative movement of these sides.
Types of Fault
Dip-slip faults:
show vertical movement of the hanging wall and the footwall.
Examples:
Tensional Stress
Compressional Stress
Strike-slip faults
Shows horizontal ang parallel displacements of the fault planes.
Example:
Shear Stress
West Valley Fault Line
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