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What is Psychology?

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by

Lauren Donato

on 10 September 2012

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Transcript of What is Psychology?

What is Psychology? Psychology: The scientific study of the behavior and mental processes of human beings and other animals. What are the five approaches to behavior? 1. Biological Humans and animals behavior is the result of internal physical, chemical, and biological processes. Deals with brain activity, the nervous system, and genetics. 2. Behaviorist A persons' behavior is shaped and controlled by their environment. They are influenced by rewards or punishments. Example: the chicken crossed the road because he inherited the road crossing gene from his parents. Example: the chicken crossed the road because he was offered a piece of cake if he crossed. 3. Humanistic Behavior is guided by one's own self image; by subjunctive perspectives or the world and by needs for personal growth. Example: the chicken crossed the road because he chose to, believing it would lead to his growth. 4. Cognitive Human behavior is understood based on the mental processing of information. Example: After thinking it over and realizing that there were no cars on the road, the chicken decided to cross to the other side because it would be beneficial for him. 5.Psychodynamic Behavior is directed by forces within ones personality that are often hidden or unconscious. Emphasizes internal impulses, desires, and conflicts and decisions are made unconsciously. Example: the chicken was day dreaming about crossing the road with his father when he was a chick and crossed the road. How do psychologists find information? 1. Controlled Experiment Psychologists investigate and manipulate factors to try to gain insight. It can be used to determine cause and effect relationships. Example: exercising is beneficial for sleep. 2. Case Study Psychologists study one specific person and make conclusions based on the case. The benefits of case study is that it is more detailed information, and things can be studied that would be impossible to study in a group experiment. Example: A person who has brain damage needs treatment based on their specific case. 3. Correlation A random sample. Psychologists try for a representative sample. Benefits of this method is that psychologists and predict behavior more accurately and obtain data about the strength of the sample. Example: psychologists could study if watching violence on T.V. or playing violent video games causes people to have a more violent behavior. 4. Survey Method People answer questions. Psychologists can measure attitudes, motives, and opinions and get a lot of data easily. However, this method can be biased because people don't tell the truth. Example: mail surveys, personal surveys, and telephone surveys. 5. Naturalistic Observation Psychologists study people or animals in their natural environment. Results of their study have a real world significance. Example: Sit in a park and watch the natural actions of humans. American Psychology Association: Rules and Ethics The general principles are goals to guide psychologists to the highest ideals of psychology. The principles are to be considered by psychologists to make correct actions. Ethical standards are written broadly so that psychologists can make their own decisions for thier specific case. Members who violate the ethical standards may be removed from the membership, expelled from association or suspension or loss of licensure Ethics codes:
1. allow professional judgement for the psychologist
2. eliminate injustice or inequality
3. ensure applicability across the activities conducted by psychologists
4. guard against a set of rules that might be quickly outdated Made By: Lauren Donato
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