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Transcript of The Holocaust
- Adolf Hitler is appointed Chancellor of Germany
- Reichstag fire, and Hitler is given emergency powers immediately afterward
- Enabling Act passed giving Hitler dictatorial powers
- Aryan/non-Aryan official definitions issued by nazis
- First Nazi act against Jews, they cannot own land
- Night of Long Knives
- Hitler becomes Fuhrer (current president von Hidenburg dies)
- A vote says 90% of the people approve of Hitler's new powers
- Jews can no longer serve in military
- Nuremberg Race Laws decreed
- German Gestapo (secret police) no longer needs to obey the law
- SS Totenkopfverbande division established to guard concentration camps
- Rhineland reoccupied by Nazis
- Heinrich Himmler is head of German Police
- Anschulss (union) of Germany with Austria, SS is now in charge of Jewish Affairs in Austria
- Nazis record all Jewish wealth, property, and businesses
- Large red "J" stamped on all Jewish passports
- Nazi troops occupy Sudetenland
- 17,000 Jews expelled to Poland, Poland doesn't accept and they hover between the borders
- Ernst vom Rath (German officer) is shot by Herschel Grynszpan (Jew)
- Kristallnacht, the Night of Broken Glass
- Nazis fine Jews 1billion marks for damages during the Kristallnacht
- Jews expelled from German schools
- Compulsory Aryanization of Jewish businesses
Nuremberg Laws started to be applied to conquered territories
- Hitler threatens Jews during Reichstag speech
- Nazis force Jews to give up all gold and silver items
- Complete nazi seizure of Czechoslovakia
- Adolf Eichmann is director of Prague Office of Jewish Emigration
- Soviet-Nazi non-aggression pact signed (take over Poland together)
- Nazis invade Poland, SS activity begins. Forced curfew on Jews
- WWII Europe start date, Britain and France declare war on Germany
- Soviet troops invade Poland
- Heydrich commands SS to start gathering Jews in ghettos near railroads for the "Final Solution"
- Nazis and Soviets divide Poland
- Hitler declares isolation of Jews
- Forced Jewish labor
- Yellow Star of David
must be worn on all Jews aged 10+
Not just Jews were killed in the Holocaust., it was mainly the Jews. There were political enemies of Hitler, Gypsies, mentally or physically disabled people, homosexuals, and religious dissidents.
- Location of Auschwitz-Birkenau Concentration Camp near Krakow determined
- First deportation of Jews into Poland
- Nazis invade Denmark and Norway
- Rudolf Hoss is "kommandant" (commander) of Auschwitz
- Nazis invade France, Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg
- France signs armistice with Hitler (in the same rail cart as when Germany was forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles)
- First anti-Jew measures taken in France
- Tripartite (Axis) Pact by Germany, Italy, and Japan
- Nazis invade Romania
- Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia become Nazi allies. Krakow Ghetto with 70,000 Jews is sealed off. Warsaw Ghetto with 400,000 Jews is sealed off
Number of Jews under Nazi control at the start of the year~556,000 Jews
At this point, mass killings of Jews occur frequently and will not be all listed
- Himmler's first visit to Auschwitz, orders massive expansions to hold more
- Nazis occupy Bulgaria
- All Jews ordered into forced labor
March 26 - German Army High Command approves the tasks of SS Einsatzgruppen (murder squads) in Poland
- Nazis invade Yugoslavia and Greece
- Nazis invade USSR (Russia)
- Himmler informs Auschwitz Kommandant Hoss that Auschwitz has been chosen to give the final solution, as ordered by Hitler
- Overcrowding, starvation, disease killed 500,000 Jews in Ghettos
- SS Einstazgruppen mass murders Jews following the German Army
- First use of Zyklon-B gas at Auschwitz
- All Jews must wear the Star of David
- General deportation of all German Jews begin
- German Army drive on Moscow begins
- Chelmno extermination camp is not operational, this is a camp that MAINLY uses gas vans
- Mass Zyklon-B gas killings begin at Auschwitz in Bunker 1
- Wannasee Conference to coordinate the "Final Solution"
- More deportation to Poland (French and Slovak begins) extermination camps
- SS leader Heydrich (appointed mid-1932) is mortally wounded by Czech Underground
- Jews in recently (1940+) conquered territories now enforced to wear Stars of David
- Heydrich dies from injuries
- Nazis LIQUIDATE Lidice to retaliate for Heydrich's death
- July 2 - Other countries' media networks reporting over 1million Jews (closer to 2.5 million, but they didn't know) have been killed
- Himmer visits Auschwitz again and orders the size to be almost tripled
- Himmler orders all Jews in Germany camps be deported to Auschwitz or Majdanek
- Belzec concentration camp dismantled to hide the evidence after killing 600,000 Jews
~7,000,000 Jews, ~ 175,000 killed
- Russian troops reach former Polish border
- Nazis occupy Hungary
- First Hungarian Jews deported to Auschwitz
- Red Cross visits fake camp Theresienstadt and gives a favorable report
- D-Day landing
- Majdanek concentration camp liberated by Russian troops
- Anne Frank and family are arrested and sent to Auschwitz
- Last Jewish ghetto in Poland, Lodz, is liquidated
- Last use of the gas chambers at Auschwitz
- Himmler orders the gradual destruction of Auschwitz as prisoners wear down in numbers
- Warsaw Ghetto first Jewish resistance
- Ernst Kaltenbrunner is now head of RSHA, replacing Heydrich
- Germans surrender to Russians at Stalingrad
March 14 - The Krakow Ghetto
- Chelmno extermination camp ceases, kills 600,000 in total
- Warsaw Ghetto uprising (biggest resistance) eventually crushed and deported
- North Africa war is lost for Axis
- Treblinka exterminations cease, after 870,000 deaths
Rest of the year - Ghettos get liquidated as Nazis try to elimate evidence
- Nazis use Operation Harvest Festival, mass shootings of Jews to reduce resistance
- Auschwitz Kommandant Hoss is now chief inspector of all concentration camps
- First castration report by Auschwitz chief surgeon
~8,300,000 Jews, ~ 5,200,000 killed
~8,000,000 Jews, ~ 2,800,000 killed
~9,500,000 Jews, ~ 6,000,000 killed
Throughout the year, Nazis commence death marches of inmates to cover the evidence, Jews frequently die on these journeys. A lot of camps/ghettos are also liberated, only major camps will be listed here.
- Soviet troops invade eastern Germany
- Warsaw Ghetto liberated
- Soviets liberate Auschwitz
- Anne Frank dies of Typhus after being transferred from Auschwitz to Bergen-Belson
April 10 -
Allies liberate Buchenwald
- Soviets reach Berlin
- US 7th Army liberates Dachau
- Hitler dies ("how" is debated)
- Unconditional German surrender by General Alfred Jodl at Reims
- Goring is captured by US military
- Himmler suicides in British custody
- Nuremberg International Military Tribunal opens
Anne Frank (June 12, 1929 - March, 1945)
General Date: Jan 30th, 1930 - April 30th, 1945. 15 years and 4 months, goes from Hitler's chancellor date to Hitler's death
Exact Jews killed, from "The History Place"
9,508,340 initial population, 5,962,129 killed, 3,546,211 surviving Jews
Annelies "Anne" Marie Frank is one of the most discussed Jewish victim during the holocaust. She goes into hiding in "the Secret Annexe" (hidden room in her father's office compound) when the Nazis invaded Amsterdam (July 6, 1942). A few workers knew of their presence and helped by giving them food, water, and information. Eventually more and more of their family friends joined them. At the time of discovery, they had 8 people in their hiding place. The Frank family, the Pels family, and Fritz Pfeffer. They manage to hide until August 4, 1944, when they were betrayed by an unknown source. The people in hiding were split up and sent to various extermination camps. They were transferred frequently as Nazi Germany was losing the war and they had to be moved further inland. Anne Frank eventually ended up in Bergen-Belson where she died of Typhus (her sister died from the same cause days earlier).
What makes her so famous is the dairy (last entry August 1, 1944) that she carefully kept and wrote in before their capture and her dad's (only survivor of the 8) will to fight for human rights and pass on their story. He edited Anne's diary, removing private family matters and other unrelated/inappropriate passages and got the diary published in multiple nations with multiple translations.
On May 8, 1945 the Allies (Great Britain, France, the UUSR, and the United States of America) declared the end of World War II and the unconditional surrender of Germany, this day was later known as V-E Day, and it also informally marked the end of the Holocaust. (Greenfeld, 2001)
The Holocaust began in 1933 to 1945, when Adolf Hitler was elected as the Chancellor of Germany. Almost right away he began to discriminate against the Jews and by using propaganda he created a strong feeling of anti-Semitism among the non-Jewish Germans. Jews were hated upon; eventually they were forced into ghettos and later killed in concentration camps. Gypsies, Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals, communists, and political opponents were also killed in these camps.
Many views the beginning of the Holocaust with the beginning of WWII in 1939, after Germany conquered much of Western Europe the Jewish population of the regions were at the mercy of the Nazi’s. Death camps were built manly in Poland and Jews from all over Europe was sent there, in 1942 the “Final Solution” was passed; and by the end of the war almost 2/3 of the Jewish population was exterminated. (Levy, 2003) Eventually after Hitler’s suicide in 1945 following by the end of the German Nazis regime the Holocaust too gradually came to an end.
Picture of the number of Jews living in Europe before and after WWII (Lawton, 1999)
History of Hatred
The History of the hatred of Jews in Europe began way back in the Middle Ages, when Church leaders taught that the Jews were responsible for the death of Christ, and was therefore evil. (Lawton, 1999) Ever since then Jews were discriminated and executed, by the 19th century the Christian Churches were more moderate but the persecution of the Jews was already engraved into a habit. (Lawton, 1999)
It was taught that Jesus had died at the hands of Roman rulers, but the fault was on the Jewish authorities who had turned him over and betrayed him. During the middle Ages economic, political, and military ideals were commonly fused with Christian beliefs, which labeled Jews as the enemy of the now unifying cultural force in Europe. (Hasday, 2002) At the end of the 11th century European Christians launched the first in a serious of religious wars that was to follow for centuries after known as the Crusades, during this period Crusaders massacred not only the Muslims but also the Jews living in and around the city. (Hasday, 2002)
In the 15th century the Jews were to be all converted, and after their resistance they were instead pressured by enacting laws against them. (Hasday, 2002) The laws revoked their citizenships, relegated Jews to the lowest rungs of society by forbidding them to own land or join craft guild; left with no other choice many Jews became trade merchants and money lenders, which made many of them very prosperous and were then deeply resented and perceived as greedy and ruthless. (Hasday, 2002)
Depression in Germany
World War I (1914-1918) was won by the Allies (Britain, France, Italy, United States), and during the Paris peace conference which followed after, the blame was placed upon Germany in Article 231 (War Guilt Clause) of the Treaty of Versailles. The treaty also forced Germans to pay a large sum of money to the Allies in reparation, which rapidly sunk Germany’s economy. A depression was in place and inflation became a severe problem, middle-class Germans found their life savings worthless and millions lost their jobs. During this time many Germans looked to the more extreme side of the political spectrums in hopes of finding a cure, when the Nazi party came to power it began extremely popular. Jews were blamed for Germany’s defeat in 1918 as scapegoats, people accused them of having avoided combat duty and making money out of the war even though Jewish soldiers had fought in the war.
Hitler's Rise to Power
Adolf Hitler was born on 1889, he was a veteran of World War I and when the depression hit he promised to solve Germany’s problems through the National Socialist Party (Nazi) and put into practice his ideas of strong leadership and racial purity. (Lawton, 1999)
Hitler had a deep-rooted hatred for Jews and other “undesirables” such as Gypsies, Jehovah’s Witnesses, homosexuals, and Communists. He believed in a German Master race of Aryans, a supposed race having typically Nordic Feature (Fair skin, blond hair, and blue eyes), and shunned anyone who wasn’t. Modern Anthropologists (scientists who specialize in the physical and social characteristics of humans), however, do not recognize the existence of such a race. (Hasday, 2002) Aryans were considered to be at the top of the Nazi’s ridiculous racial pyramid, and the Jews were at the very bottom. Hitler hated Jews with a passion; he referred to them as a “parasitic, enemy race”.
The Nazi Regime
When President Hindenburg died in 1934 Hitler declared himself Fuhrer, turning Germany into a military dictatorship. Hitler was popular; the Nazi government prioritized giving people jobs, however most of the jobs involved building military equipment and warfare equipment, materials, and vehicles. (Lawton, 1999) This was a direct violation of the Treaty of Versailles, Hitler also made wild speeches about getting rid of the Jews and getting Germany more “Lebensraum” (Living space).
In 1935 Hitler made anti-Semitism official and passed the Nuremberg Laws, a series of laws which deprived the Jews of their German citizenships and placed many restrictions upon them. Jews were forbidden to marry Aryans or have sexual relationships with them; in addition Aryan women were also not allowed to work for Jews as maids.
Jews were expelled from jobs and schools; they were humiliated in the streets and picked on. Soon they were required to carry passports with “J” stamped on them and must wear the Star of David at all times for easy recognition.
Under the Nazis, Jews from all over Europe was herded into cramp, crowded, poor areas called ghettos. Walls were built around the ghettos and Nazi guards were posted at the gates to make sure that no Jews escaped. (Lawton, 1999) The ghettos were stricken with poverty, overcrowding, and insanitation, thousands died of starvation and diseases alone. The rest who were strong and healthy enough to work were later sent off to concentration camps.
The majority of concentration camps were built in Poland, but the initial ones were in Germany. Prisoners were stripped naked and shaved upon arrival; they’re also given numbers tattooed onto their wrists instead of names. The Nazis kept a careful and detailed record of not only each prisoner’s name, number, and date of arrival, but also the reason for their detention, any offenses committed, punishments given, and eventually the cause and date of death. (Lawton, 1999) Examples of such camps are Dachau and Buchenwald.
Upon arrival prisoners are sorted as those who can work and those who can’t. Those who can’t are thrown into the gas chambers and cremated while the rest are forced into labor. Food was limited, prisoners slept in huge dormitories with up to ten prisoners sharing a bed, the winters were harsh and diseases raged in the overcrowded conditions. (Lawton, 1999) Many people were used as slave labourers to factories and quarries nearby, some were sent and used like laboratory animals for medical experiments. (Lawton, 1999) Tens of thousands of people died from starvation, exhaustion, suicide, or through medical experiments before they even entered the gas chambers.
The Final Solution
By 1941 Nazi leaders realized that there were too many Jews living in Europe and with the existing methods of the previous death squads the killing (mass shooting )was too inefficient, by then 2 million Jews had already been killed by the Einsatzgruppen but the ghettos were still overpopulated. (Lawton, 1999) In January 1942 at the Wannsee Conferences the “Final Solution” was made. (Lawton, 1999)
The final solution involved the systematic killings of the Jews; concentration camps were soon converted to death camps in the east. At first the Jews were happy to leave the ghettos and travel to the camps, they were lied to that they will only be transferred and they were promised more food in co-operations. (Spiegelman, 1991) There were gas chambers set up to look like showers, and upon the prisoner’s arrival they would be told to strip and to take a shower when in reality they were going to be gassed. After the victims are poisoned their bodies are would be sent up to be burnt in the crematoria with rows of ovens.
Those who could work were put into actual shower rooms, and afterwards the Nazi officers would randomly throw prisoner clothing at them without looking. Switching clothes were not an option so many people were stuck with clothing twice their size or wooden shoes that were too small to fit. (Spiegelman, 1991)Their only other material belongings were a spoon and a bowl; those who lost them would either get no food or had to eat with their hands. (Spiegelman, 1991)
In the May of 1944 Jews from Hungary were deported to the Auschwitz camp, due to the large numbers the ovens became inefficient and cremation pits were built. (Spiegelman, 1991) Of all the execution methods this was probably the cruelest one of them all. Dead bodies from the chambers are thrown into these pool-sized pits and set aflame while the newly arrived Hungarian Jews had to jump in the graves while they were alive. Prisoners that worked there poured gasoline over the live ones and the dead ones, and scooped up the fat from the burning bodies to pour back into the pits. (Spiegelman, 1991)
Death Marches and the End of WWII
In June 1942 BBC broadcast reported the massacres of Jews in concentration camps, and in 1943 as the Nazis began to realize they were losing the war the slaughter of Jews were accelerated. (Lawton, 1999) Ghettoes were wiped out, deportations to death camps were sped up and even the most efficient camps like Auschwitz could not keep up with the numbers that needed to be killed. (Lawton, 1999) On June 1943 Heinrich Himmler, the head of the SS organized slave labour units to dig up and burn corpses to destroy all evidence. (Lawton, 1999)
In the Winter of 1945 the remaining ghettos in Poland the concentration camps were emptied, starving prisoners were only given one blanket and were forcd to march to camps in Germany where they could be put to use in the war effort. (Levy, 2003) Some were left behind at the camps for the Soviets to find; those who were too weak to walk died on the way or were shot. This journey soon became known as “death marches”.
Prisoners were often machine-gunned when they arrived at their destinations; some were dumped in overcrowded, disease-ridden camps; and others were placed into trains that would stop in the middle of nowhere leaving the prisoners cramped inside for over 1 week without food or water. (Levy, 2003) In other camps such as Chelmno and Sobibor, the remaining prisoners were forced to dispose of the bodies, buildings, and sometimes even plant trees to disguise it. (Levy, 2003)
Oskar Schindler (April 28, 1908 - Oct 9, 1974)
Schindler was a ethical German industrialist who saved the lives of approximately 1,200 Jews from the holocaust by making them work in his factories.
Schindler was originally a member of the Nazi party and worked as a spy (Abwehr) for them to give information of Czechoslovakia and Poland prior to their invasions.
He was primarily interested in money at first, but as time went on, Schindler was shocked by the amount of pain the Nazis are causing the Jews. One event in particular, the liquidation of the Plaszow Ghetto made him swear to save as many as he could.
Schindler was a fairly rich man during the war. However, the only way to protect his Jewish workers was to bribe the SS officials so they would leave his workers alone. By the end of the war, he was almost broke and did, in the end, declare bankruptcy. For the final few years of his life, he used donations from the Schindlerjuden- the Jewish workers he had saved to live before his death.
There are several films and novels today detailing the work of Oskar Schindler. The notable ones are Schindler's Ark (novel), and Schindler's List (film).
During the war there were a few brave Jews and non-Jews who resisted against the Nazis, they were known as Partisans. They blew up railway lines, collected weapons secretly, and ambushed Nazi in the woods. As the rumours of the death camps began to reach the ghettos. Several ghettos organized revolts and many Jews escaped to join the partisans. (Lawton, 1999)
At Bialystock in Poland 40 000 Jews died defending the ghetto from deportation, but the most famous case laid in the Warsaw ghetto. In April 1943 German troops surrounded the Warsaw ghetto in an attempt to capture the remaining Jews and send them to concentration camp, the Jews however, fought back furiously for 3 weeks and by May the ghetto was reduced to rubbles. (Lawton, 1999)
There were also occasional revolts in the death camps, during a revolt at Sobibor death camp, many guards were killed and more than 600 Jewish prisoners escaped and joined local partisans. (Lawton, 1999) But other revolts did not go as smoothly. In Auschwitz some prisoners working in the gas chambers revolved, they killed 3 SS men and blew up a crematorium. They were all executed including four young girls that sneaked over the ammunition. (Spiegelman, 1991)
When the Allies began closing in on Nazi Germany from both the eastern and western fronts, they began to come across these terrible death camps. There were rumours and reports from the few who had escaped but the world wasn’t ready at all to face what they were about to discover. Camp officials fled from the advancing armies, abandoning huge numbers of dead and dying prisoners; local militias who guarded the camps deserted their homes and disappeared. (Lawton, 1999) Some remaining prisoners died after liberation due to their starved bodies unable to cope with the improved nutrition they now received or diseases like typhoid.
Survivors were put in “Displaced Persons Camps”, some who made it back home sometimes found other people living in them who were unable to give up the home, and others were even executed upon their return. (Lawton, 1999) In addition not many countries were willing to accept them as citizens, but eventually over time the survivors managed to establish new lives.
In 1945 19 of the 22 leaders of the Nazi regime were put on trial for breaking the rules of war and crimes against humanity in Nuremberg and found guilty. (Lawton, 1999) Several of the leading Nazis such as Hitler, Himmler, and Goebbels escaped justice by committing suicide; and some such as Eichmann fled the country. (Lawton, 1999) Even today Nazi war criminals are still being found who went into hiding are put on trial, though there are not many witnesses left to their crimes.
Genocide – The planned killing of an entire cultural or racial group of people
) – The word itself means “destruction by fire” in Hebrew, an English term used to describe the genocide which occurred during the Nazi Regime that killed more than six million Jews. (Greenfeld, 2001)
Anti-Semitism – Hatred, prejudice or discrimination against Jews because of their heritage.
Nazi SS (
) – The special forces of the Nazi whom carried out the Jewish execution and death camps, also known as Gestapo or Nazi Secret State Police.
Aryan Race – What Hitler considered as pure master race that include blonde haired and blue-eyed German people.
Lebensraum – A facet of Nazi Policy created by Hitler that means “Living space”. This meant taking over other lands to provide room for the “Aryan race” to flourish. (Levy, 2003)
Kristallnacht – Also known as the Night of Broken Glass, a Nazi program throughout Germany and Austria on the night of November 9th - 10th, 1938 where Jews were killed and property was destroyed.
early 1946- late 1961
These 15 years are mainly for the punishment and execution of major players in the Holocaust. Soldiers of the SS are essentially ignored but SS leaders are tried and those that are hanged are found guilty. Most of these hangings are at the former extermination camps, especially Auschwitz for its symbolic meaning
Those found guilty include captains of SS, human experimentation doctors, leaders of various concentration/extermination camps.
Here are the major leaders:
Auschwitz Kommandant Hoss is captured on March 11, 1946. He was found guilty and was hanged on April 16, 1947 at Auschwitz (Auschwitz for its symbolic meaning. He will die where he has killed).
Hermann Goring (essentially vice-Fuhrer of Germany, captured on May 9, 1945) commits suicide hours before his planned execution on October 16, 1946 with his body cremated at Dachau extermination camp.
21 SS Einstazgruppen leaders go on trial with 4 group commanders being executed.
Adolf Eichmann (in charge of "Jew logistics") is captured in Argentina by May 11, 1960. He is hanged on May 21, 1962 at Ramleh.
Nuremberg Race Laws
Holocaust Movies:: Schindler's List (1993)
Jewish Passport with Large Red "J"
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Auschwitz Gas Chamber (Disguised as Showers):
Hitler Dies Newspaper
Schindler's List is a 1993 American film directed and co-produced by Steven Spielberg. It tells the story of Oscar Schindler, a wealthy German businessman in Poland during WWII. In the beginning he was a greedy man who wanted to make money from the Nazis' rise to power and made a plant filled with Jew workers who were herded into Krakow's ghetto. But as he became to realize the horrible things that were happening to the Jews he made a effort to keep all his jew workers as the factory was the only thing preventing his staff from being shipped to death camps. He even went further and bribed Nazi leaders to keep Jews on his employee list and out of the camps. By the time the Allies won he lost his entire fortune but saved 1,100 people. It has been nominated for 12 Academy Awards and won seven, including Best Picture and a long-coveted Best Director for Spielberg.
Rudolf Hoss' Execution at Auschwitz
Map of Concentration/Extermination Camps
Anne Frank and Family:
Schindler's List - Official Trailer 
Holocaust Movies:: Life is Beautiful (1997)
Holocaust Movies:: The Pianist (2002)
Holocaust Movies:: The Boy in the Stripped Pajamas (2008)
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Life is Beautiful is a WWII Holocaust movie directed by Roberto Benigi. It features Guido, a Jewish man who met Dora (a German) and fell in love. They had a child named Joshua but the happy family was soon split apart. Guido, Joshua, and Guido's uncle was sent to the concentration camp and Dora, even though being a German, insisted on going along with them. Once they were imprisoned Guido went through elaborate lengths to keep his son from understanding the truth of their situation, he tells him that they are competing with others to win an armored tank. Joshua believed the competition and survived to the end because of this even though his father ended up dying. In the end he was reunited with his mother Dora and the story was shown being told by an older Joshua.
Life Is Beautiful - Trailer
The Pianist is a 2002 movie directed by Roman Polanski, who himself grew up in Poland watching the Nazi destroy his country during World War II. It features Wladyslaw Szpilman, a gifted classical pianist born to a wealthy Jewish family in Warsaw, Poland. The film begins with him performing for a local radio broadcast when a German bomb hits the studio. During the early stages of Nazi occupation him and his naive family believed that they were well above danger even as the Germans began to hoard them into ghettos, he was able to obtain employment papers for his elderly father and even landed a supposedly safe job playing piano for a restaurant. But as Nazi control tightened Wladyslaw and his family was selected for deportation to a Nazi concentration camp, on his way to the cattle cars his friend in the polish jew police force pulled him out of the line , saving him and leaving him alone to be the sole survivor of his previous family of 6. Refusing to face a certain death, Wladyslaw goes into hiding in a comfortable apartment provided by a friend. However, when his benefactor goes missing, Wladyslaw is left to fend for himself and he spends the next several years dashing from one abandoned home to another, desperate to avoid capture by German occupation troops. In his last days of hiding he met a German officer who was touched by his talent and began to help him by occasionally delivering him food. The film was based on a true story of the actual Wladyslaw Szpilman.
The Pianist Trailer
The Boy in the Stripped Pyjamas is a 2008 film directed by Mark Herman of an adaptation of John Boyne's novel. The films revolves around a young son of a high ranking Nazi commandant, Bruno who has been shielded from the harsh realities of the war. When his father got promoted their family moved from Berlin to the countryside and gets increasingly bored in his sprawling as his mother forbid his from exploring the backyard. One day he discover what he believes to be a farm in the distance, and all the inhabitants are curiously clad in striped pajamas. Eventually defying his mother's rules he ventured out beyond the backyard and arrived at a barbed wired fence to find a young boy his age named Shumel. Their friendship quickly blossomed but the closer they grew, the more Bruno became aware of the horrors unfolding around them and his unknowing mother is catching on quickly as well. Later, after Bruno swipes a piece of cake for Shmuel, a officer accuses the Jewish boy of stealing and delivers a swift punishment. When Bruno's father announces that the young boy and his mother will be going to live with their aunt in Heidelberg, Bruno grabs a shovel and makes his way to the camp, then being mistaken as a prisoner he was sent with Shumel inside a gas chamber and died there together.
Looking for Specific Information?
Red = Dates
Blue = Number of Jews or specific mention of Jewish people
Green = Special Notes/Information
Black = General information
The Boy in the Striped Pajamas (trailer)
Treatment of Jews
Escalation of Tension
Fate of the Prisoners
Terror of Living in the Camps
Acceleration of Killing
The Death Marches
The smallest death camp there is. It killed approximately 260,000 people and its commander was Franz Stangl.
Denying the Holocaust
Denying the Holocaust
To this day there are still many Holocaust deniers who refuse to accept the truth of such a terrible event, they claim that the event never happened, gas chambers are a myth, and the death of Jews were caused by wartime privation and not systematic killings. They also claim that Hitler actively worked to protect Jews and the stories were all made up in order to gain political and financial advantage, and that Germany was the true victim of WWII.
Holocaust denial is a form of anti-semitism, despite the fact that the Holocaust is one of the best documented genocide in history, several SS officers confessing their sins, the disappearances of the Jews, and the mountains of evidence against them.
Deniers focus on the extermination camp run by Nazis at Auschwitz. They claim that gas chambers were delousing chamber, air-raid shelters, or morgues. To the confessions of previous SS officers they claim that they had been brain washed by propaganda, and forged the thousands of evidence present.
Counts at the Nuremberg Trials
Count 1 = CONSPIRACY to commit crimes alleged in the next three counts
Count 2 = CRIMES AGAINST PEACE including planning, preparing, starting or waging aggressive war
Count 3 = WAR CRIMES including violations of laws or customs of war
Count 4 = CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY including murder, extermination, enslavement, persecution on political or racial grounds, involuntary deportment, and inhumane acts against civillian population
A concentration/death camp. This is easily the largest camp in the Holocaust. This camp was made up of 3 main camps, Auschwitz, Birkenau, and Monowitz. The camp had one side, mainly Auschwitz-Birkenau, that was reponsible for killings. The Monowitz side housed working prisoners to continually expand the camp to give the capacity to kill more. This camp has been estimated to kill 1,000,000 - 2,000,000 people primarily through gas chambers. The best camp commander (one that made the camp more efficient or "better") was Rudolf Hoss.
A pure death camp. This camp has killed approximately 600,000 people by sending people into gas trucks. These trucks feed exhaust into the cabin, suffocating the prisoners as it drove towards their burial/cremation ground. The best camp commander was Herbert Lange.
Another pure death camp. This camp has killed approximately 850,000 people, with an average life span from people who just arrive there of two hours. This camp mainly uses gas chambers to kill the people. Eventually, this camp was dismantled and planted over with trees to hide the evidence. The best camp commander was Franz Stangl.
A concentration/death camp. It killed from 42,000 - 1,300,000 people and none of its commanders did really do anything special for this camp.
Originally a labor camp and later converted to a death camp. It killed approximately 600,000 people and did so by pumping carbon monoxide gas from a Diesel engine into gas (disguised as shower) chambers. Reported statistics would show that the camp can kill a trainload (~2,000) people in less than 3 hours. The best commander was Christian Wirth.
The End of this chapter in history...
By: Anita He & Yang Lu
The Jews Killed Christ
President von Hindenburg
Meeting at Nuremberg for the Law
Things quickly escalated on the November of 1938, when a Jewish boy shot a high ranking German officer. On November 9th anti-Jewish riots were organized by the Nazis and destroyed Jewish property and belongings, this was later known as Kristallnacht. After these riots more than 20 000 Jews were taken to various new concentration camps that had been built. (Lawton, 1999)
Jewish Synagogue Burning
Open Pit Corpse Burning
Train Station Sorting
Piles of Shoes from Camp Prisoners
Punishments were savage and prisoners could be shot for the slightest offenses. Sometimes a German officer would deliberately take a prisoners hat and throw it aside, then ask them at gun point to pick it up. Then as the prisoner run to their hat the officer would shoot them and get an extended vacation for stopping a prisoner from escaping. (Spiegelman, 1991)
Dachau Gas Chamber
Bataan Death March
Resistance Supply Smuggling
Liberation of the Camps
Crematory at Auschwitz
Chelmno Gas Van
Slave Workers of Belzec (the guard in the back is SMILING)
Prisoner Barracks of Majdanek
Cattle Car to Treblinka
10 Trillion Marks (German Currency):
Worth ~200 pounds of meat
200 pounds of meat = ~800 USD
Three mere months after Hitler was elected Chancellor in the January of 1933, this political opponents became the first victims of a concentration camp at Dachau, near Munich. This brought a fear to the German citizens of criticizing Hitler. (Lawton, 1999)
Defendants of the Trials