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Research methods 1

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Gerrit Rooks

on 11 September 2012

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Transcript of Research methods 1

Observer-expectancy effects Ask them about a specific relationship and transaction: How many years was this a partner? & What is the nr. of clauses the contract
Calculate a correlation.
Contrary to what was expected we found in reality that contracts are more explicit if buyer and supplier share a past. Observation Science is a process:
the PTO-cycle

Problem

Theory

Observation What is the goal of scientific research?
Why and how is science a process?
What is falsification (and why is it important)?
What types of research can be distinguished?
What is quality research?
Which two main schools of thought about doing research exist?
What are the main `types’ of scientific reasoning? This lecture: questions you should be able to answer after this lecture You have to read the book! Plagiarism will be checked Assignment
The assignment is to write a research proposal. You have to hand in your assignment as
hardcopy at the secretary of Human Technology Interaction (IPO 1.20). The assignment will be posted on OASE shortly.

Exam
Multiple choice (approx 50 questions). The precise subject matter of the exam will be announced. In the book key words are marked (bold), you need to know and understand them.

Grading for Track 1
Your grade for the first Track is a weighted average of the assignment (25%
assignment + 75% exam). However, both the assignment and the exam should be
graded a 5.0 or higher. So there is some but not complete compensation. Grading and exam Lecture 1


Lecturer
Gerrit Rooks Methods and Models in Behavioral Research Always be critical: The case of Kluge Hans Choose research design.
Case study
Survey
Secondary data
Experiment
Select a sample. Firms in the Eindhoven region (Sampling frame chamber of commerce) Observation An interfirm relationship implies repeated interactions.
Firms that prove to be trustworthy will be selected again, not trustworthy firms will not be selected again.
Interfirm relationship will be associated with higher levels of trust, and consequently thinner contracts, than spot-market transactions. Theory
For instance: How do social networks affect inter-firm trust and contracting between firms? Problem – the research question Third edition Blumberg/Cooper & Schindler

Good general introduction in research methods

Includes Quantitative and Qualitative Methods This track: Research Methods Van Osten Oskar Pfungst A believer vs critical thinker We cannot prove the theory that
all swans are white.

However, if we find one black
swan, then we can prove that
the theory “all swans are white”
is false Falsification “Scientific theories, can and should be rationally criticized, and can and should be subjected to tests which may falsify them” Karl Popper “A theory can never be proven, but it can be falsified.” Critical rationalism Science
as an empirical cycle
Blumberg
"A systematic inquiry, the objective of which is to provide information to solve managerial problems.“



Alternative definition
"seeking through methodical processes to add to the body of knowledge and, by the discovery of nontrivial facts and insights" Scientific reseach is `systematic’ What is difference between scientific and other forms of research? Knowledge is information that changes something or somebody -- either by becoming grounds for actions, or by making an individual (or an institution) capable of different or more effective action." -- Peter F. Drucker in The New Realities What is (the goal of) scientific research?
Track 1: Research Methods (A0P07)
Gerrit Rooks
Lectures in English
Communication via OASE (I hope that this works)
Track 2: Statistical Models (A0P08)
Chris Snijders
Lectures in English
Communication via dedicated website (URL will follow) Methods and Models in Behavioral Research (MMBR / 0AP03) Why study research methods? ??? Can horses count?
The test / research Reporting
Changes in oil prices in the last 2 years
Descriptive
How many automobilist switched to electrical power?
Explanatory
Why are females more likely to switch to electrical power?
Predictive
How many automobilist will switch to electrical power next year? Four types of empirical research Purpose of the study clearly defined
Research process detailed
Research design thoroughly planned
Limitations frankly revealed
High ethical standard
Findings presented unambiguously
Conclusions justified What is quality research?
Clear, well developed research questions / research problem
(not: how do people behave?)
Definition of all terms used
Literature study / pre-research

An unclear problem statement is the fundamentele mistake in social scientific research Purpose clearly defined Thorough planning to maximize reliability & validity
Planning to maximize `objectivity’
Thorough literature research Research design thoroughly planned Replicability
Another researcher should in principle be able to repeat the research
Transparancy
I should be able to gauge the reliability & validity of the research Research process detailed Research should not harm participants.
Researchers should not plagiarize or fabricate results High ethical standard Use clear language
Assertions carefully drawn
Presentation of data should be comprehensive Findings presented unambiguously The results should be basis of conclusions, dont exaggerate, or stretch the results. Conclusions justified
Every school of thought is like a man who has talked to himself for a hundred years and is delighted with his own mind, however stupid it may be. (J.W.Goethe, 1817, Principles of Natural Science) Philosophy of science (dont panic, this will be short) Basic assumption:
Reality is subjective, constructed by interaction
Inductive reasoning
Qualitative methods Basic assumption:
Reality is objective and measurable
Deductive reasoning
Quantitative methods phenomenology Positivism “Two schools” All swans are white Is a kind of reasoning that constructs or evaluates propositions that are abstractions of observations Induction Induction en deduction are 2 complementary ways to
acquire knowledge Induction en deduction Premise: All men are mortal.
Premise: Socrates is a man.

Conclusion: Socrates is mortal. reasoning from one or more general statements regarding what is known to reach a logically certain conclusion.

if certain premises (P) are known or assumed, a conclusion (C) necessarily follows from these. Deductive reasoning A well known prove of the statement that 2=1

This is obviously a flawed argument Deductive reasoning is not fallible . A correct deduction is true and valid

premises have to be true, correspond to reality

conclusions must follow from premises (valid) Correct deduction P: Fish are mammals.
P: Fish are warm-blooded.
- - - - -
C: Mammals are warm-blooded Correct? P: Fish are mammals.
P: Fish are warm-blooded.
- - - - -
C: Mammals are warm-blooded Invalid & false premises P: Fish are cold-blooded.
P: Humans are not fish.
- - - - -
C: Humans are warm-blooded. Correct? P: Fish are cold-blooded.
P: Humans are not fish.
- - - - -
C: Humans are warm-blooded. Invalid, true premises P: Mammals are cold-blooded.
P: Humans are mammals.
- - - - -
C: Humans are cold-blooded. Correct? P: Mammals are cold-blooded.
P: Humans are mammals.
- - - - -
C: Humans are cold-blooded. Valid, false premises P: Humans are warm-blooded.
P: Fishermen are human.
- - - - -
C: Fishermen are warm-blooded Correct? Exam exercise What distiguishes scientific research from other forms of acquiring knowledge?
Theories and hypothesis
Intelligence
Systematics
Tests P: Humans are warm-blooded. P: Fishermen are human.
- - - - -
C: Fishermen are warm-blooded Valid, true premises _____ is a form of argument that purports to be conclusive - the conclusion must necessarily follow from the reasons given. 
A. Induction
B. Deduction
C. Logic
D. Philosophy
E. Exposition What distinguishes scientific research from other forms of knowledge gathering?
Use of inductive and deductive reasoning
Systematics
Testing of hypotheses
Theory building Inductive reasoning relies on
Rationalization
Making empirical observations
Premise-conclusion arguments
Making predictions Which of the following is a requirement for a deduction to be considered correct? 
A. Validity
B. Reliability
C. Inference
D. Empiricism
E. Conclusiveness The fundamental weakness in the research process is _____. 
A. Incorrectly defining the research question B. Identifying a flawed sampling frame C. Misdefining the target population D. Failing to identify all relevant secondary information
E. Skipping the exploratory phase A Invalid conclusion & False premises
B Valid conclusion & False premises
C Invalid conclusion & True premises
D Valid conclusion & True premises
p1 If all dogs are mammals, then all dogs are reptiles.
p2 All dogs are mammals.

c: Therefore, all dogs are reptiles.
p1 If all dogs are mammals, then all dogs are reptiles.
p2 All dogs are mammals.

c: Therefore, all dogs are reptiles. B Valid conclusion & False premises A Invalid conclusion & False premises
B Valid conclusion & False premises
C Invalid conclusion & True premises
D Valid conclusion & True premises
p1: If all dogs are mammals, then all dogs are animals.
p2: All dogs are animals.
c: Therefore, all dogs are mammals.
C Invalid conclusion & True premises
p1: If all dogs are mammals, then all dogs are animals.
p2: All dogs are animals.
c: Therefore, all dogs are mammals. a)a reporting study
b)a descriptive study
c)an explanatory study
d)a predictive study
What type of study is this? “The results of our longitudinal survey show that job satisfaction is caused by fairness perceptions.”
c) an explanatory study
What type of study is this? “The results of our longitudinal survey show that job satisfaction is caused by fairness perceptions.” Which of the following is not a
characteristic of good research according to Blumberg?

a) clearly defined purpose
b) quantitative analysis
c) conclusions should be justified
d) findings presented unambiguously Which of the following is not a
characteristic of good research
according to Blumberg?

a) clearly defined purpose
b) quantitative analysis
c) conclusions should be justified
d) findings presented unambiguously Which of the following is an example of inductive thinking?

a)reasoning that a man will be able to hit a golf ball further than a woman because men generally have greater muscle development than women
b)assuming that the sun will rise tomorrow morning because we know that the earth will continue to rotate and the sun will burn for billions of years
c)assuming that there is something that we name intelligence because we notice that problem solving measures show differences between people that seem to be consistent over time Which of the following is an example of inductive thinking?

a)reasoning that a man will be able to hit a golf ball further than a woman because men generally have greater muscle development than women
b)assuming that the sun will rise tomorrow morning because we know that the earth will continue to rotate and the sun will burn for billions of years
c)assuming that there is something that we name intelligence because we notice that problem solving measures show differences between people that seem to be consistent over time The research philosophy `positivism’
assumes, amongst others, that:

a)there is a social world that exists
externally
b)the researcher is part of what is
observed
c)the researcher should be driven by
human interests
d)a researcher should be realistic The research philosophy `positivism’
assumes, amongst others, that:

a)there is a social world that exists
externally
b)the researcher is part of what is
observed
c)the researcher should be driven by
human interests
d)a researcher should be realistic Why should the research process be decribed in detail?

a) to ensure justified conclusions
b)to maximize validity
c) to allow replicability
d) to enhance research ethics and
controlability Why should the research process be decribed in detail?

a) to ensure justified conclusions
b)to maximize validity
c) to allow replicability
d) to enhance research ethics and
controlability Intermezzo: Learning De moderne tijd geeft een valse vorm van zekerheid door de grote hoeveelheid beschikbare informatie. Waar het om gaat is echter hoe we de informatiestromen moeten beheren.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1749-1832 Een citaat. Wie zou dit kunnen hebben gezegd? Dik boek, weinig tijd
Later
De helft van de managers klaagt over een teveel aan informatie
Vier van de tien managers noem hun werkomgeving extreem gestresst Leren leren? Leren is het maken van nieuwe verbindingen tussen neuronen
Hoe beter de concentratie, hoe beter de kwaliteit van deze verbindingen
Hoe meer verbindingen er zijn gemaakt, hoe makkelijker het is om nieuwe verbindingen te maken
Informatie met een emotionele lading wordt beter onthouden en sneller geleerd Leerprincipes Hoe meer zintuigen (delen van de hersens) tegelijkertijd worden ingeschakeld, hoe sneller we leren en hoe beter we onthouden Vertel me en ik luister.
Laat me zien en ik kijk.
Laat me het beleven en ik leer
Lao Tzu Onze hersenen zijn gek op beelden
hoe fitter ons lichaam is, hoe beter onze hersenen functioneren
Om informatie in ons lange termijn geheugen op te slaan, moeten we die een aantal malen herhalen
We leren het meest door iets zelf uit te voeren Leerprincipes Hoe lezen we?
Begin bij p1 en dan in 1 tempo van 250 wpm door (overigens maar 10% komt verder dan h1)

Beter: boek lezen alsof we een legpuzzel leggen
Wat is het totale beeld van het boek: lees de flappen, de inhoudsopgave
Blader, kijk naar de afbeeldingen, grafieken, vetgedrukte stukken, samenvattingen enz.

EN Sneller / beter lezen
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