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Bayley Infant and Toddler Scale
Transcript of Bayley Infant and Toddler Scale
The BSID were first published by Nancy Bayley in The Bayley Scales of Infant Development (1969) and in a second edition (1993). The scales have been used extensively worldwide to assess the development of infants. The test is given on an individual basis and takes 45–60 minutes to complete. It is administered by examiners who are experienced clinicians specifically trained in BSID test procedures. The examiner presents a series of test materials to the child and observes the child's responses and behaviors. The test contains items designed to identify young children at risk for developmental delay. BSID evaluates individuals along three scales:
Designed to identify young children with developmental delay and to provide information for intervention planning (Bayley, 2006)
* Measure cognitive, language, motor, social-emotional, and adaptive development of children between the ages of 1 month and 42 months
* Provide developmental risk indicators that may detect atypical behaviors
that warrant further evaluation (but does not provide a diagnosis)
Based on developmental research and theory that identifies behaviors typifying normal development in young children
* The third edition was designed to improve the quality and utility of the
* Five phases of development in which goals for revision were identified
and literature reviewed, pilot and mini pilot studies were completed to refine item order, look at content, relevance of the items, adequacy of the floors and ceilings, evidence for validity was obtained, and standardization was completed.
* Designed to meet federal and state guidelines for early assessment
Behavior rating scale:
This scale provides information that can be used to supplement information gained from the mental and motor scales. This 30-item scale rates the child's relevant behaviors and measures attention/arousal, orientation/engagement, emotional regulation, and motor quality.
This part of the evaluation, which yields a score called the mental development index, evaluates several types of abilities: sensory/perceptual acuities, discriminations, and response; acquisition of object constancy; memory learning and problem solving; vocalization and beginning of verbal communication; basis of abstract thinking; habituation; mental mapping; complex language; and mathematical concept formation.
This part of the BSID assesses the degree of body control, large muscle coordination, finer manipulatory skills of the hands and fingers, dynamic movement, postural imitation, and the ability to recognize objects by sense of touch (stereognosis).
Validity and Reliability
The BSID are known to have high reliability and validity. The mental and motor scales have high correlation coefficients (.83 and .77 respectively) for test-retest reliability.
Before giving the BSID test to a child, the examiner explains to the parents what will happen during the test procedure. This is to allow the examiner to establish a focused rapport with the child once the procedure has started and avoid diverting attention from the child to the parents during the test. The parents are also asked not to talk to the child during the BSID test to avoid skewing results.
As of 2004 it was recognized that parental involvement in the developmental assessment of their children is very important. First, because parents are more familiar with their child's behavior, their assessment may indeed be more indicative of the child's developmental status than an assessment that is based on limited observation in an unfamiliar clinical setting. The involvement of parents in their child's development testing also improves their knowledge of child development issues and their subsequent participation in required intervention programs, if any. In cases of developmental problems, parents should bear in mind that the scoring and interpretation of the test results is a highly technical matter that requires years of training and experience.
BSID data reflect the U.S. population in terms of race, ethnicity, infant gender, education level of parents, and demographic location of the infant. The BSID was standardized on 1,700 infants, toddlers, and preschoolers between one and 42 months of age. Norms were established using samples that did not include disabled, premature, and other at-risk children. Corrected scores are sometimes used to evaluate these groups, but their use remains controversial.
The BSID has poor predictive value, unless the scores are very low. It is considered a good screening device for identifying children in need of early intervention.
Presented by Deidra, Blaire and Alicia