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Transcript of Ancient Mali
As a Whole
Most popular from 1200 to late 1400's
Timbuktu was center of Trans-Saharan trade
Lots of gold and salt
Dry, arid land except around river
Economics & Trade
• Part of the Sudanic states
• Began as Ghana, but was taken over by original Mali leaders when the empire collapsed
• Unified vassal/city states
• Each state was its own village community/clan
• Because of these states, Mali became more hierarchical and showed more social differences
Cultures and Customs
-Griots: professional oral historians
-"divided up the world" with social arrangement
-crime was severely punished
Stretches from the Sahel to the Sahara.
River- Helped the people to better themselves with agriculture
Sahel- Mining and intense labor
Geography & Impact on People
• Either one king that ruled over all of Mali or individual kings that ruled over certain city states.
• Each king had a council that included advisors, religious leaders, and griots (storytellers, the kings most trusted advisors and record keepers)
• Political stability depended on the quality of the current leader
• Islam was a universal faith
• Ruling families over each state used Muslim titles and had religious leaders in their councils.
• All laws/rules were based off of religion and what would best follow the Islam beliefs.
• Sheepskin, goatskin, books, cloths, iron, copper, salt pearls, ivory, rubber, leather and slaves were also traded
Agricultural society that produced:
1. Onions, beans, millet (a cereal plant that grows quickly and well in poor soil conditions), cattle, gourds (a type of fruit), sheep, poultry, milk, honey, kola nuts and sorghum (a type of grain)
2. Cash crops which were rice, tobacco, cotton and peanuts
• From trade, Mali gained cloth, copper, dates and metal goods in exchange for gold, kola nuts and slaves
• Trans-Saharan trade was important for Mali because gold was in high demand along the trade routes.
• The main careers in Mali were traders (Caravans who traveled in large groups), miners, farmers, blacksmiths, and soldiers for the Malian army
Interesting fact: Malians practiced silent barter, meaning trading without speaking, because traders couldn’t speak the other trader’s languages. Instead of speaking, tribes would leave their goods for the other tribe to analyze what they left and would leave their goods in exchange
Demise of Mali
Mansa and his army lost and retreated and lost many soldiers
The capital began to get invaded, but Mansa and his army repelled the attacks
After the death of Mansa, the empire went into a period of decline
Mansa’s three sons fought for power over the empire, and no one ruled Mali after the death of Mansa
After Mansa’s death, the smaller territories and states that were under the empire broke off
Size of the empire kept shrinking and the economy started to decline
A Songhai king rebelled against the Mali Emperor Mansa Musa(1400-1500)·
Mali had many gold and salt mines so this drew in many foreign invaders
The king conquered areas along the Niger river which disrupted Mali trade routes
This caused a decline in the economy of Mali empire
Mali began to decline when Mansa Mahmud IV( last emperor of Manden) launched an attack on the city of Djenne(city in Niger)
Agricultural society that gained its wealth from gold and salt
Soil was dry and hard to grow crops
Despite conditions, the Malians were able to survive fairly well