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HISTORY OF COOPERATION
Transcript of HISTORY OF COOPERATION
The transition from food gathering to food production was one of the most crucial steps in human development.
A century before the Trojan War, Minos, mythical son of Zeus, conquered several islands, most important of which was the island of Crete. Emphasis in Training and Education The leaders of the movement felt that the social and economic problems of the farmer’s, fisherman, and workers in Antigonish, Nova Scotia, Canada could be solved by means of adult education.
The pioneers of the movement were priest and educators at St. Francis Xavier University in Antigonish. They studied the problems of poverty and agreed that adult education was the key factor in helping the poor in the rural areas of Antigonish. .
The Cooperative Movement and the Socialist state Agricultural production stimulated the creation of markets. They had to produce more in order to acquire more money for their own needs and comforts. Medieval Guilds As early as 300 B.C., the Greeks had formed associations known as “Eranoi” which had the features of the guilds which were organized in Teutonic Europe between the seventh and fifteenth centuries. Each type of guild performed specific functions, such as protecting the members from illness, arranging funerals, providing feast, and helping these in distress. The Merchant Guilds In the case of the merchant, he perform all of operations involved in merchandising his goods.
The delegated buying and selling his employees, and the transport of his goods to other business organizations. He became a manager. The objective of the merchant guild was to preserve a trade monopoly in the town market. The Craft Guilds By the 12th all types of craft guilds started splitting off from century,their parent association. The Industrial RevolutionThe industrial revolution started in the 18th century in England.
The introduction of machines in factories caused misfortune to many people who had dependent namely on waving for their livelihood. The Industrial Revolution The beginning of the cooperative movement may be traced back to the middle of the 18th century in Great Britain. They organized in 1760 a corn mill on a cooperative basis as a moved against the high prices which had been charged by corn miller. It was one of the earliest attempts to conduct business on a cooperative basis in Britain. The Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers There were several internal shortcomings of the individual cooperative societies such insufficient business management and presence of dishonest officials.
The 28 flannel waivers of Rochdale agreed to contribute two pence a week. They put their store in a small street called Toad Lane in Rochdale. They paid 10 pounds for the annual rent of their store named Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers.
The principles and practices of the Rochdale Pioneers were adopted in many parts of Britain, then in continental Europe and eventually throughout the world. The Birth of the Agricultural Credit Society Raiffeisen decided to solved the problem by means of self-help.
Because of the exceptional accomplishment of Raiffeisen and his pioneering efforts in credit cooperation, he became the Father of Cooperatives. Cooperation in Europe In an industrialized community, the cooperative movement assumes different objectives from that of an agricultural community.
The first of this king was formed in Manchester in 1863. English co-operators felt the need for cooperation among themselves for mutual help, such as in legal assistance, educational promotion, and aid to new cooperatives.
The biggest importer of towels as well as the biggest buyer of Swiss agricultural products in Switzerland is the Swiss National Cooperative Organization. One of the most recent cooperative developments in Europe is the Petrol Cooperative.
Fishing is one of the principal industries in several European countries. There are cooperatives which provide all kinds of services to their members such as sanitaria, play grounds and other institutions for the welfare of the members. Promotion of education has given considerable stress. The education of members and officers of cooperatives has been done through seminars, trainings, study group, and formal courses in schools. Cooperation in Canada A cooperative was opened by coal miners in Stellar ton, Nova Scotia in 1861, and at least 9 more opened in other communities in Nova scotia before 1900. In Quebec, cooperative development began with the formation of a farmer’s mutual fire insurance company in 1852.
The credit union movement which is now a major part of the cooperative business in Canada also had its roots in Quebec. The cooperative movement in Canada involves more than 9 million members who owned about 45 billion dollars in asset. Major Principles of
Adult Education 1. The primacy of the individual 2. Social Reforms must come through education. 3. Education must be with economic needs. 4.Effective social reforms involve fundamental changes in the social and economic institutions. 5. The ultimate objective of the movement is full abundant life for everyone in the community. The cooperative movement in Russia started in 1864 with organization of consumer cooperatives.
In Russia, capitalism began to develop only after serfdom was abolished in1861.
The first Russian cooperatives emerged in various socialist states and fields of activity. Lenin planned to create a network of consumer cooperatives to supply the entire population with essential goods. He stressed “The whole of society should be one big cooperative as far as supply and distribution is concerned.” Cooperation in the United States Among the early cooperative efforts were “cheese rings” to process surplus milk into cheese; “husking bees” where neighbouring farmers gathered together at one farm at a time to husk each other’s corn; and the “bull rings” the forerunner of today’s livestock, dairy, and artificial breeding cooperatives. The Role of the Government The state government encourage and aided the growth of cooperatives by passing laws to ensure their rights to do business.
In 1923, the United States Government created twelve Federal Intermediate Credit Banks and provided the initial capital. End