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Virtual Tour of the Rock Cycle, Maryland

Rocks and Minerals 02: Rocks and the Rock Cycle

Manar Al-badarneh

on 4 January 2013

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Transcript of Virtual Tour of the Rock Cycle, Maryland

Today we are going to learn about the Rocks and minerals in Maryland. The rocks of Maryland are diverse and include plenty of sediments, minerals and rocks! There’s a lot to see so lets get going. Note: Along our tour we will be learning a lot about igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. All of which are included in the majority of Maryland’s rock types. Rocks beneath the Earths surface tend to melt and form magma. Igneous rocks form when magma cools and crystallizes. There are two types of igneous rocks:
Intrusive igneous rocks are formed when magma hardens underground and cools slowly to form large crystals. These rocks are formed inside the earth, therefore called intrusive.
On the other hand, if magma makes it to the surface, it cools quickly and the rocks may look glassy or contain bubbles. These are called extrusive igneous rocks.

In Maryland, this type of rock along with metamorphic can be found on the inner edge of the Coastal Plain towards the eastern boundary of the Blue Ridge Province. IGNEOUS ROCKS What is the difference between magma and lava?Magma is melted rock underground and lava has reached the surface. Weathering is the process in which rocks are broken down over time as a result of weather. The processes in the hydrosphere, atmosphere, cryosphere and biosphere all break down rocks and cause weathering. Sedimentary rocks are rocks formed from the erosion and deposition of sediment. When pieces of large or small rocks cement together, they form sedimentary rocks. Many fossils are found in this rock and contain layers of different sediment.
Different types of Sedimentary rocks are: Coal, limestone, Halite, sandstone and Coquina.

Limestone can be found in all areas where an ancient sea existed. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Some igneous rocks include: granite, basalt, Obsidian and Native copper. Sedimentary rocks: Marble, Slate, Serpentine and Megmatite are all types of Metamorphic rocks. They are formed when the rocks internal arrangement of atoms and chemical composition changes due to extreme changes in temperature and pressure.
These rocks contain mica. A shiny silicate mineral with a layered structure, found as minute scales in granite and other rocks, or as crystals. It is used as a thermal or electrical insulator. So the rocks look shiny or sparkly. METAMORPHIC ROCKS According to the Law of Conservation of Matter, rocks and other materials are neither created nor destroyed. Instead, materials change form.From this law we can observe that rocks change into other types of rocks and transform in the geosphere. The process of this continuous transformation is called the Rock cycle.

All rocks started as igneous rocks about 4.6 billion years ago.
Forces of wind, water, heat, and pressure change these rocks into sedimentary and metamorphic rocks.
After weathering, along with erosion and deposition, comes lithification, the process by which sediments are transformed into solid sedimentary rock. The rock cycle starts with an igneous rock. Heat and pressure transforms it into a metamorphic rock. Weathering and erosion transforms into sediment. The compaction and cementation turn into sedimentary rocks. The melting of metamorphic rocks turns into magma, when cooled turns into igneous rocks again. Questions? 1, How can an igneous rock become a sedimentary rock?It turns into sediment after weathering and erosion, and then by compaction and cementation it turns into sedimentary rock.
2.How can an igneous rock become a metamorphic rock?It can become a metamorphic rock when heat and pressure is applied.
3.Can a sedimentary rock be transformed into an igneous rock, and then into a metamorphic rock? Explain.It is possible because any rock that it melted into magma can become an igneous rock, and than threw heat and pressure a metamorphic rock it formed. Rock Cycle Video by NASA I hope you enjoyed the tour!
Thank you :) By: Manar Al-badarneh
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