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Transportation in the Roaring 20s
Transcript of Transportation in the Roaring 20s
First mass produced car
Sold over 15 million units (7th most ever)
Utilized the moving assembly line to increase efficiency, simplify the worker's task, and increase the pace of work
In 1925 more than 9,000 Model T's were made per day
Ford strove to create a car that middle-class Americans could buy
By 1925 the price of a Model T had dropped under $300
The Model T was voted the "Most Influential Car of the 20th Century"
"The car that put the world on wheels" Passenger Trains Up until 1920, nearly all Americans had traveled by train in cities
Record amount of railroad traffic
About 65,000 passenger cars in operation in 1929
All time high: 1.2 million passengers boarding 9,000 inter-city trains and racking up 47 million passenger miles every day
Dramatic decline in revenue starting in 1920 because of the rise of the automobile Three major forms of transportation: Cars
Airplanes Transportation in the Roaring Twenties By Max Gelman Cars Boom in auto industry spurned other industries that manufactured car parts
Rubber - tires (Goodyear)
Petroleum - gasoline (Texaco)
Glass - windows
Paint Popularity of cars led to massive road building programs
From 1921 to 1929, over 275,000 miles of road were paved
Federal Aid Highway Act of 1925 - created the United States Highway System (predecessor to Interstate Highway System created in 1956) Model T Other Car Companies General Motors:
When Ford stopped making the Model T, he stopped all productions for 18 months, allowing competitors to sell more cars
GM surpassed Ford in sales in late 1920s
Organized the different car brands so they could not compete with each other
Began to listen to what the consumer wanted instead of making the cheapest car possible - introduced yearly models
C.E.O. - Alfred P. Sloan
"Ladder of Success": Chevrolet, Pontiac, Oldsmobile, Buick, Cadillac Packard:
Built luxury automobiles and trucks
Premier luxury automaker of the 1920s
Over $22M income in 1928
"Ask the man who owns one"
Bought by General Motors in 1932 Chrysler:
Founded in 1923 by Walter P. Chrysler
First six-cylinder engine (1924) available for medium priced car 1927 Cadillac LaSalle Car Advertisements: Appealed to consumer's emotions A working class woman
appears in this advert, with
a Model T in the background. Trains Privatization Under President Woodrow Wilson, the railroads had been under government control for 26 months to increase wartime efficency - United States Railroad Administration
On March 1st, 1920, under the Esch-Cummins Act, railroads were returned to private management. It also allowed the ICC to:
consolidate railroads for efficiency (exempted rails from antitrust legislation)
set min. and max. rates
establish a fund for financially troubled railroads. E-C Act also created the Railroad Labor Board, which resolved railroad employee wage disputes. Other Interesting Facts 1925 - The first diesel-electric locomotive was used in the Central Railroad of New Jersey
1928 - Great Northern Railway's Cascade Tunnel completed in Washington state. It is currently the longest railroad tunnel in the Western Hemisphere.
During the 1920s, railroad companies began to lose customers to the automobile industry. However, trains, buses, and cable cars were prevalent in cities, especially New York and San Francisco. 1920s steam locomotive Airplanes Airplane Firsts May 20-21, 1927: Charles Lindbergh flies the Spirit of St. Louis from New York to Paris in the first transatlantic flight, lasting 33.5 hours
June 17-18, 1928: Amelia Earhart becomes the first woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean. Wright Brothers Orville and Wilbur Wright created the first airplane capable of sustained flight and on December 17th, 1903 flew the Wright Flyer I - the first manned aircraft flight
The Smithsonian Air and Space Museum describes the flight as "the first powered, heavier-than-air machine to achieve controlled, sustained flight with a pilot aboard."
This invention launched an entire new industry in commercial airlines and in 1926 almost 6,000 passengers were carried over the course of the year.
Wright Flyer I Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-Aktiengesellschaft DELAG for short - German Airship Transportation Corporation in English
First commercial airship (Zeppelin) corporation
1910 - started as sightseeing tours; by 1919 were providing commercial transportation
Zeppelins were invented by Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin of Germany
Zeppelins in the U.S. U.S. placed patent on original Zeppelin design in 1899
October 11th, 1928 - First transatlantic airship flight from Freidrichshafen, Germany to Lakehust, NJ; took four days
Two airships regularly made transatlantic flights from 1928-1937 - Graf Zeppelin and Hindenburg
Airship industry literally went down in flames after Hindenburg disaster in NJ on May 6, 1937