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Chapters 3+4

science
by

Rebekah Michael

on 26 September 2012

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Transcript of Chapters 3+4

Chapters 3+4 Chapter 3 Ecology is the study of organisms and their interactions with other organisms and their environment. Biosphere Biome Ecosystem community population individual Ecological methods Observing
experimenting
modeling Levels of organization Producers Sunlight is the main energy source for life on Earth photosynthesis- plants use light energy to make energy Called autotrophs Some organisms rely on energy stored in inorganic chemical compounds and get it from chemosynthesis Consumers Called heterotrophs and consumers Herbivores eat only plants.
Carnivores eat only meat.
Omnivores eat both. Feeding Relationships Energy flows through an ecosystem in only 1 direction: from sun (inorganic compounds) to autotrophs to heterotrophs This flow is called a food chain. A food web links all of the food chains in an ecosystem together. Trophic levels are the different levels in a food chain or web. Ecological Pyramids diagram that represents relative amount of energy or matter in each trophic level can be a pyramid of energy, biomass, or even numbers Only 10% of energy available at one trophic level is transferred to the next. Recycling in the Biosphere Matter is recycled within and between ecosystems through biogeochemical cycles.
It is not used up, just transformed. The Water Cycle Evaporation transpiration condensation precipitation runoff seepage underground water root uptake collection Nutrient Cycles Every living organism needs nutrients to survive. These nutrients; carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus; pass between organisms and the environment through biogeochemical cycles. Carbon is a key ingredient of living tissue. It can be found in many different reservoirs and compounds throughout the biosphere. All organisms need nitrogen to make amino acids, which are used to build proteins. Nitrogen gas makes up 78% of our atmosphere.
Nitrogen fixation is used by some bacteria to turn nitrogen gas into ammonia.
Denitrification is used by others to convert nitrates into nitrogen gas. Phosphorus forms part of living organisms' important, life sustaining molecules, such as DNA and RNA, but it is not very common in the biosphere. Nutrient Limitation The primary productivity of an ecosystem is the rate which organic matter is created by producers. When an ecosystem is limited by a single nutrient that is limited or cycles slowly, that nutrient is called the limiting nutrient. When an aquatic ecosystem receives a large input of a limiting nutrient, the result is an algal bloom. Chapter 4 Weather= day-to-day conditions of Earth's atmosphere Climate=average year-to-year conditions of precipitation and temp The greenhouse gases in our atmosphere, CO2, methane, H2O, and others, trap heat energy and maintain Earth's temperature range. As a result of latitude and the angle of the sun, there are 3 climate zones on Earth: polar, temperate, and tropical The unequal heating of Earth's atmosphere drives the wind and ocean currents, which in turn transport heat throughout the biosphere. Cool air or water sinks, hot air or water rises, creating ocean currents and wind. Biotic factors= biological influences on an organism. Abiotic factors= nonliving factors that shape ecosystems Biotic+abiotic= survival and growth of an organism+growth of ecosystem Habitat=where organism lives, or abiotic+biotic Niche= how an organism uses abiotic+biotic (Also includes place on food web) No 2 species or organisms can occupy the same niche, but they may live in similar niches. Community interactions, such as, competition, predation, and symbiosis, have a powerful effect on an ecosystem. Competition= Organisms trying to use the same ecological resources at the same time. Predation=one organism hunts down and eats another. Symbiosis= organisms' interactions with one another.There are three types: mutualism, commensalism, and paratism Mutualism= both organisms benefit Commensalism= one benifits, the other doesn't care Paratism= one benifits, the other is harmed. Ecosystems constantly change and adapt, older inhabitants die out, newer ones move in= ecological succession. Primary succession occurs when there is no soil. Secondary succession occurs where no soil is removed but everything else is. There are ten major biomes on Earth: rain forest,
tropical dry forest,
tropical savanna,
desert,
temperate grassland,
temperate woodland,
Northwest coniferous forest,
boreal forest,
and tundra. Each have different species that have adapted to them. Most species would be unable to live in a Biome other than the one they are used to. Then there are those two outcasts labeled as 'other':
mountain ranges
and polar ice caps. Mountain ranges' ecosystems vary with elevation. Starting at sea level, they go from grassland to pine woodland to conifers to wildflowers and stunted vegetation and finally to fields of ice. I'm pretty sure there is no need to explain polar ice caps... And there was my prezi. If you look at the positions of the chapter 4 wording, you might notice two faces, one slightly angry and speaking, the other very happy. If you try not to analyze the Chapter 3 wording too much, it vaguely resembles the Human body. Hope you had fun!
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