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South Wirral Geography - Daintree Case-study

Biodiversity under threat - Year 13
by

Mr Newman

on 26 March 2013

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Transcript of South Wirral Geography - Daintree Case-study

Daintree Rainforest Provisioning Services Regulatatory Services General Information is important is important too Services it provides Timber - began 1930s, arguments between conservationsists and timber industry Medicines - 25% of all drugs are based on plants found in rainforest environments The Daintree Rainforest is a tropical rainforest near Daintree, Queensland, on the coast, north of Cairns in tropical far north of Australia. At around 1200 square kilometers the Daintree is the largest continuous area of rainforest on the Australian mainland. the forest its self is around 20000 years old. The average climate is around 30 degrees which is normal for many forests. It also follows all the rest of the rules that keep a forest alive.

Named for Richard Daintree, part of the forest is protected by the Daintree National Park and drained by the Daintree River. It also got added to the world heritage sites along with the great barrier reef which it runs adjacent with is also a heritage site. Since it technically is a museum it is open to the public to tour with the supervision of local people that ensure that any distrubance to the fragile eco-system is kept to a minimum.

The Daintree Rainforest is Warm and Dense.
Rainforests are home to 50% of the worlds animals and Plant Life
The Rainforests are being destroyed at a rate of 246000sq kilometers a year.
The Average Rainfall of Rainforests is around 2000mm a year.
The Temprature of the Rainforests is 20-30 degrees.
Rainforests are in America-South and North, Africa and Australia.
We will not last long if we destroy all of our Rainforests.
Without Rainforests creaures will lose their habitat and wipe out. Biodiversity The Daintree Rainforest contains 30% of frog, marsupial and reptile species in Australia, and 65% of Australia's bat and butterfly species. 20% of bird species in the country can be found in this area.

it includes 13 species that cant be found anywhere else in the world. parts of the forest are being used for residential purposes which means that numbers of certain species are falling because of disturbance or road kill. Another problem that makes this eco system so fragile is that the amount of hunting or just domestic dogs killing animals within the forest makes it harder for others to survive. From the mid-late 20th century, logging has been a major factor contributing to the vulnerability of the Daintree. After World War 2, Australia’s economy began to expand rapidly and the demand for timber was high. Numerous timber mills were built to log trees from the Daintree and transport infrastructure was built by such firms to make logging more rapid and efficient. Not only did logging become more rapid but this infrastructure also burnt fossil fuels to fuel the production and transportation which contributed to greater carbon based pollutants in the biosphere and hydrosphere in the surrounding area. For example, in 1945 a steel punt barge was built to carry large logs. However, due to a greater global awareness of logging (especially in large rainforests such as the Amazon) logging has curbed in recent decades and government policies and organisations (such as the Queensland Forestry Department) have aided this. However, on a global scale logging in the Daintree is minor compared to larger rainforests such as the Amazon in Brazil and the Borneo Rainforest in Indonesia. Mining - not yet active, although commercial pressures will become more prevalent as time goes by, major mining companies will see an opportunity to exploit the area. Click me! Cultural Services Tourism Managing the Daintree The Daintree rainforest is the oldest rainforest on earth, and has survived for over 135 million years without any threat. Humans are now destroying and damaging this area which is affecting its biodiversity and has lead to the depletion of species such as the southern Cassowary. Various strategies have been implicated to try and protect the biodiversity of species in the Daintree. The Wet Tropics Managment Authority

The organisation which formed in 1990 is responsible for making this 900km wet tropics area a world heritage site. This area includes national parks (the Daintree), publicly owned ladn and private land.
The authority is responsible for;
- Developing and implementing plans and policies
- Researching and monitoring the welfare of the world heritage site
- Managing land agreements with other land holders.
- Expanding education and visitor centres in the area.
- Promoting and funding conservation in the wet tropics. Dougals Shire council

Before 2008, the Douglas Shire council determined decisions that were to be made in Daintree rainforest. They dealt with issues such as planning permission and access to the rainforest. In the 1990s, land developers, farmers and local council wanted more development to take place in the Daintree which was to support a population of 2400. However, locals wanted them to reduce the population to 1200.
In 2000, the local council managed to reduce the poulation as a method of balancing economic growth and biodiversity. they achieved this by;
- Increasing the cost of the ferry crossing by $4 to finance land buy-back. Tourist are still willing to pay the extra fee even though disputes suggested this would affect the tourist industry.
- It rejected proposals to build a bridge and introduce another ferry crossing which would only increase tourist numbers, which would therefore threaten the rainforest.
The Douglas Shire council was abolished in 2008 when the Daintree became part of the Cairns Regional Council. This has arised concerns that development which has been seen in Cairns may also occur in the Daintree. Daintree and Tourism The Daintree Rainforrest is so old that it has survived global climate changes, rising and falling sea levels and cyclones.however,the most dangerous threat facing it now is tourism- and tourism is big business in the Daintree. The Daintree region is situated within the far north queensland tourism region in Douglas shive.
It is approximately 110km north of cairns by road, and 40km from mossman and port Douglas. A survey carried out for the australian tropical research foundation in 2002 , found that tourism and recreation in the Daintree region was worth a $141.7 million a year. Tourism and ecreation has createdabout 3500 jobs. why do people come ? 89% of people go to the Daintree rainforest for the scenery and views, 30% go for the wildlife, and 20% go because of the remoteness and isolation. Tourism in the rainforest The Daintree river ferry is the gateway to the solitary place on the planet where two world herritage areas unite. The daintree Rainforrestand great Barrier reef-majestic and unsurpassed in biological significance. Daintree Rainforest, river,reef, and specialist experiences and tours are highly recomended to ensure satisfactory engagement with natures masterpiece. discenering travellers are able to gain priviliged access to Australlias most significant natural ecosystems and its richestdiversity of flora and fauna. Accomodation 70% of tourists travel to the Daintree independently, The other 30% come on organised tours, travelling by coach. 99% of visitors cross the daintree river by ferry to enter the Daintree. The ferry carries 21 vehicles and operates from 6am to midnight everyday. Traffic peaks from april to september The road linking the ferry to cape tribulation has been tarmacked, which has increased the number of visitors (approximately 40%of the total visitors) accesing the area with either a hire car or four wheel drive. North of cape tribulation, is only accesible using 4WD and is called the bloomfield track. The rainforest co-operative council suggested that if action was not taken to conserve the rainforest, the area would see an increase in residential development, a loss of biodiversity and attraction to tourists.
here are some strategies that may help maintain the environment.


Community development

-The 1200 - 1400 residents which will live in the daintree will be involved in stewardship and conservation.
-Base employment on tourism, organic farming, tropical horticulture and small buisneesses.
-settle around 600 blocks of land.

Indigenous people

-Take into accout aboriginal rights to land and let them promote their own culture in the rainforest.

Tourism

-Increase tourist numbers to support the local economy.
-Regular monitoring on tourism to ensure that it is sustainable.

Water supply and waste managment

-Keep water extraction from streams and underground supplies sustainable.
-Invest in the best technology for domestic waste disposal

Roads and Ferry

-The ferry should remain the gateway to the area.
-Improve tourist facilities to attract more tourism.
-Reduce forest cut backs.

Douglas shire council


-Introduce planning controld for biodiversity conservation.
-Ensure that settlement densities are sustainable

Electricity supply

-use underground cables to extend power supply.
-People to far north will have to keep using their remote power system.
Financial issues
use ferry icome to assist community infrastructure and conservation initiatives.
-require financial commitment from federal, atate and local governmet.
-Establish the daintree land trust to support and compensate those who lose land.
-meet the cost of priority purchase and financial incentives for conservation
-subsidise the electricity supply Plants:
Ferns, Hoop Pine
Trees , Lace Bare
Grass, Flowers
Leafs, Conjevoi
Vines
Fan Palm

Animals:
Moths , Earthworms
Butterflies
Beetles
Wasps
Flies
Ticks
Termites
Green Python
Land Mullet
Land Leeches Positives Negatives Money is attracted to the area Money is spent within the local economy Jobs are created within the local region

Infrastructural improvements are made to help the region cope with tourists - airport (international) in Cairns, Roads, Ferry, Accomodation (hotels in Port Douglas and Cape Trib), Public services e.g. hospitals, public transport, police, firemen International recognition - that may attract further investment Greater awareness of uniqueness of region, may mean that
conservation projects may form Wildlife is affected by the development for tourism - e.g the construction of hotels Tourist noise scares animals and they may not inhabit the outer sections of the rainforest, closest to development Litter may disturb the local habitats Pollution of water courses? Water management issues - water taken out of the local environments for tourist uses Over-reliance on tourists Temperatures remain constant, therefore the tourists should come throughout the year, however, people are resticted by work and therefore may not be year round - seasonal tourist income e.g. summer vacation, winter holidays Port Douglas Promo for Tourism Cassowary Bird As tall as a person, with a high helmet on its head, a vivid blue neck and long drooping red wattles - this is the southern cassowary, found only in the tropical rainforests of north-east Queensland, Papua New Guinea and some surrounding islands. In Australia, the cassowary is found in far north Queensland's tropical rainforests, melaleuca swamps and mangrove forests. The cassowary is Australia's heaviest flightless bird but the emu is taller. The cassowary is an important rainforest gardener, spreading the seeds of rainforest trees. Sometimes the seeds are so large that no other animal can swallow and disperse them. A number of factors affect cassowary survival. The major threats include the loss, fragmentation and modification of habitat, vehicle strikes, dog attacks, human interactions, pigs, disease and natural catastrophic events.

Once common in far north Queensland, the cassowary's traditional feeding grounds, particularly the coastal lowlands, have been seriously reduced by land clearing for farming, urban settlement and other development. Widespread clearing and fragmentation of rainforest habitat have reduced cassowary numbers, until, today, the cassowary is threatened with extinction. Most of their lowland habitat has been cleared, and urban development threatens the continued existence of local populations outside of protected areas.

Cassowaries are sometimes killed when crossing roads. In the Mission Beach area, road accidents are the greatest single cause of cassowary deaths. Roads cut through cassowary territories, making it necessary for the birds to travel across them when looking for food. People often hand feed the birds from cars, attracting them to roads, sometimes with fatal results. Even littering, by tossing rubbish out of cars, can attract birds to the roadside and lead to their death.

Unrestrained and wild dogs are a major cause of cassowary deaths, particularly in areas near residential development. Chicks and sub-adults are small enough to be killed by dogs. However, packs of dogs also kill adult birds, pursuing them until they are exhausted, then attacking them. Dogs also indirectly affect cassowaries through their very presence, influencing the feeding, movements and general behaviour of the birds. Domestic dogs can also attack and kill cassowaries when they wander into suburban areas seeking food or water.

Pigs cause disturbance to the rainforest and compete with cassowaries for fallen fruit. They may also eat cassowary eggs and destroy nests.

Hand-feeding of cassowaries is a risk to both birds and people. Wild cassowaries conditioned to human food sources can be aggressive when protecting themselves or their chicks or seeking other human food. As birds become less wary of humans, they may become more vulnerable to dog attack and road mortality as they move around looking for food.

In recent years, cyclones have damaged large areas of cassowary habitat, causing temporary food shortages. This may have placed further stresses on local populations already under threat from habitat fragmentation, dogs and road impacts. Why they are endangered Local residents in cassowary areas are establishing nurseries of cassowary food plants so that rainforest trees can be planted to replace cleared land, and corridors can be planted to join remaining patches of vegetation.

Cassowary habitat is being protected through implementation of the Far North Queensland (FNQ) regional plan which restricts new urban development outside the existing urban foot print in FNQ. State and local governments must follow the restrictions of the plan in their planning and when assessing development.

The Department of Environment and Resource Management has mapped the habitat of the cassowary. This is an important conservation action for the cassowary as it identifies where the important areas for the species are, which can then be considered in assessing future developments.

CSIRO’s Sustainable Ecosystems are developing a method for population estimates looking at the genetics found in cassowary scat samples. Recent work has shown that cells from the stomach lining of cassowaries are passed out in their scats, so by collecting these scats, and analysing the cells found in them, it is possible to identify the sex and genetic code of each bird. Results will help identify the size of populations, as well as how far birds move and their breeding patterns. A recovery plan has been developed for the southern cassowary and is the major planning mechanism directing cassowary conservation effort. It sets out actions to secure the long-term protection of cassowary populations through improved habitat protection and enhancement, threat abatement and community engagement programs. Recovery plan
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