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The history of India
Transcript of The history of India
Republic of India
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
2.10.1869 - 30.1.1948
fourth son of Karamchand Gandhi
1888-1891: studies in London
1891-1915: South Africa
--> protests against British laws
1906: Stretcher-bearer in war
since 1915: India
--> peaceful protests against Br. Empire
Disbanding of Princely states
and the first war
The independence movement
protests against british law and colonial power
boycott of British products (clothes)
Salt march (1930) 24days, 390km, 60000 followers
many people (Gandhi as well) --> prison
struggle of freedom --> mass movement
August 1942 "do or die"
British Empire withdrawls from India (1946)
India formed a Republic on November 26 in 1949
first president: Rajendra Prasad
the Indian constitution comes into force. (January 1950)
last colonies on Indian territory vanish.
Since 1962, India had many conflicts and wars
India has after China the highest population in the world
A Country with many different religions and ethnic groups. ( multicultural state)
India's today's culture develloped through many influences.
Indus-culture/ Indus-civilization/ Harappa-Culture ( primary Culture )
High developed culture ( with Egypt and Mesopotamia the leading states)
On the climax of the Indus-culture they had five million inhabitants.
One of the first cultures who had their own scripture.
Different nations and ethnic groups
Invaded around 1500 before Chr.
Brought the vedic culture to India.
The ,,Aryan'' probably lived in indogerman areas
Crushed down the Harappa-Culture in India.
The Hunduism and Buddhism implies the basic idea of the ,,Aryan''- culture.
,,Mixed-up'' with the inhabitants of India and this folk is named ,,Indo-aryan''.
Several wars in India since the 8th century.
Conquered and dominated the northern parts of India .
They came from today's Afghanistan.
In the 16th century the muslims grounded the Mogul empire and controlled the northern for 200 years, since 1857.
Taught the Indian people the idea of the Islam.
Colonizated big parts of India, especially the British Empire.
Through colonization and conquering of India through European Empires for example Britain, France, Spain etc. they brought their own religion ( the Christianity).
Conflicts between several ethnic groups and religions
Between followers of some religions or ethnic groups are conflicts, (example: Q&A )
Chapter: ,,Licence to Kill'' ; Page ; 228 Line ; 21-23
In this page reference you can see that there is still a competition and hate between the most religions.
Colonialism means the enlargement of european countries on non-european territory.
The European countries aimed for the ressources of the colonalized countries to consolidate their own economy and to enrich theirselfs.
The second big ambition of the european countries were missionary ambitions.
The Colonization started with the first portuguese sailor, who came to india and landed in the year 1498.
His name was ,,Vasco de Gama.''
In the year 1505 the portuguese people started to conquer some territories and built bases on the coast side of India.
By Paul, Jan and Jan
British colonial India
Vasco da Gama
Born 1460 or 1469
Discovered a new sea route to India in 1498
The Portuguese set up trading posts in Goa, Daman, Diu and Bombay
The Netherlands, Britain and France also came to India for trading
Internal conflicts in India gave the Europeans the opportunity to expand their political influence and to appropriate lands
The British East India Company (EIC)
The British East India Company is founded in 1600
In 1617, the Company received exclusive rights from the Mughal emperor Jahangir to build factories in Surat and other areas in exchange for goods from the European Market
Due to its increasing influence, the EIC was allowed to do duty free trade in Bengal in year 1717
Wars and Rebellions
First Carnatic War
In 1740, the war of the Austrian Succession broke out in Europe due to the death of emperor Karl VI
In 1744, when the war entered against France and its allies, Britain got drawn into it
First, there was no war in India because the French got advised to avoid conflicts
When the Britains caught some French trade ships, the French asked for backup and a naval war began which extended to land
In 1748, the siege of a British outpost was stopped by the upcoming Monsoon rain
When the war ended 1748 in Europe, the war terminated in India too
Second Carnatic War
After the death of Nizam-ul-Mulk (a Mughal) in 1749, a war of succession broke out between his son Nasir Jung and his grandson Muzaffar Jung
When Muzaffar got supported by Chanda Sahib, the French helped them to get into power in their respective states
Consequently, the British helped Nasir who also was supported by the son of the Khan of Arcot, Muhammad Ali Khan Walajah
After years of fighting, the war was ended by the Treaty of Pondicherry in 1754, which resulted in Muhammad Ali Khan Walajah becoming Nawab of Arcot and a replacement of the French leader.
Third Carnatic War
In 1756, the Seven Years‘ War broke out in Europe
The conflict between the French and the British forces in India was renewed
The war spread beyond the carnatic region to Bengal where the Britains captured a French settlement named Chandernagore in 1757
The war was decided in the Battle of Wandiwash in 1760
The French capital Pondicherry fell to Britain in 1761
Due to the Treaty of Paris in 1763, Chandernagore and Pondicherry fell back to the French and allowed them to have trading posts in India and obliged them to support British client governments
Indian Rebellion of 1857
In 1857, native soldiers of the EIC (sepoys) started a rebellion against the company‘s rule.
The British government suppressed the rebellion and took control of the company to avoid more rebellions
After that, all power went from the British East India Company to the British Crown
The British Raj is the British rule in India which began after the rebellion in 1858 and stopped in 1947
Lord Curzon split Bengal into a western Hindu half and an eastern Muslim half, the Indians were shocked about the British „divide and rule“ strategy
As of 1909, Indians got involved more in the councils
In 1911, Bengal was reunified
During the British rule, India experienced some of the worst famines ever