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American Revolution

Progression strarting from the aftermath of the Battle of Bunker Hill to the signing of the Treaty of Paris

Bryon Cecil

on 20 November 2012

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Transcript of American Revolution

American Revolution The Early Years The Opposing Sides Critical point in relationship
War unavoidable
Expected to be short British Advantages Strongest Navy in world
Wealthy population
Well-trained army Colonial Disadvantages Lacked regular army or navy
Lacked military experience
Shortage of supplies
Not all Americans supported war
Neutral The Loyalists “Tories”
1 in 5 Americans
Varied by region
Strongest in Carolinas and Georgia Reasons for Loyalists Members of Anglican Church
Depend on Britain for jobs
Bring anarchy to America African Americans Sided w/ Loyalists
Fight with Britain and be free!!! Patriot Advantages Fighting on their turf
British relied on Mercenaries
Hessians-fought for money
Americans cared more than Hessians
George Washington Raising an Army Power not in Continental Congress
Difficulty raising army
Established Continental Army
Depended on states to recruit
At first-1 yr. enlistments
Eventually changed to 3 yrs. or length of war
Women enlisted
Some disguised as men Fighting in New York Early battles were very small
Britain needed more soldiers
32,000 troops land in N.Y.
Gen. William Howe Defeat on Long Island Battle of Long Island
Patriots outnumbered
Britain destroys Patriots
Patriots short on supplies
Washington retreats to Manhattan
Eventually into Pennsylvania "I regret I have but one life to lose for my country!" Nathan Hale A Low Point Patriot Army losing numbers
Completed service
Go home
Run away
Washington having his doubts Patriot Gains Washington asks for more troops
Enlist free African Americans
Southern states oppose
Fear for safety African Americans Join Some states enlisted A.A.
End of war
Every state except South Carolina
5,000 A.A.
Fought for same reasons During the Winter British army winter in New York
Troops also in Trenton and Princeton
Usually truce during winter Christmas Night Washington crosses Delaware River
Surprise British at Trenton
2,400 Patriots
Capture 900 Hessians
Lord Cornwallis sends reinforcements
Washington marches to Princeton
Drive away British A British Plan for Victory Separate New England from Middle Colonies
Take Albany
Gain control of Hudson River 3-Pronged Attack 1. Gen. Burgoyne from Canada
2. Lt. Colonel St. Leger east from Ontario
3. Gen. Howe north from N.Y.C.
-Meet at Albany Patriots Slow the British Patriots stop St. Leger
Patriots led by Benedict Arnold
Gen. Burgoyne captures Ft. Ticonderoga
Burgoyne had issues
30 wagons of luxury goods
Move SLOW!
Patriots block path with logs Patriots Slow the British Burgoyne sent troops and Natives to capture supplies at Bennington, Vermont
British-easy targets in woods
Green Mountain Boys attack
Burgoyne low on supplies
Retreats to Saratoga, NY British Capture Philly Howe will attack before going to Albany
Forces Patriots to flee
Washington attacks Germantown
Doesn’t succeed
Howe postpones move north to Albany
Spends winter in Philly The Battle of Saratoga Burgoyne expected reinforcements
Didn’t show
Patriots block path to the south
Led by General Horatio Gates
Patriots surround and trap Burgoyne
No food, many wounded
Burgoyne surrenders
3-pronded attack failed http://www.history.com/topics/african-american-soldiers-in-the-civil-war/videos#blacks-in-the-military http://www.history.com/topics/george-washington/videos#george-washington-makes-surprise-attack-on-trenton http://www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/videos#washington-loses-new-york-but-saves-the-revolution http://www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/videos#battle-of-saratoga-turns-the-tide-of-the-american-revolution The War Continues War Moves West and South The War is Won Gaining Allies Battle of Saratoga-turning point in war
European nations start to believe in America
Seek support from Britain’s rivals
Franklin in Paris France Secretly gave Americans money
After Saratoga-announced support openly
French declare war on Britain
Send money, equipment, and troops French-American Alliance Causes
Hostility b/t Britain and France
Conflict during French and Indian War
Victory at Saratoga boosts French confidence in Patriots Effects
France lends money to Continental Congress
Send soldiers and ships to America
Americans win Independence Spain Hated Britain
Declared war on Britain
Fought from Louisiana
Kept Britain from moving west Winter at Valley Forge Howe spent winter in Philly
Washington spent winter in Valley Forge-20 miles west
Lacked decent food, clothing, and shelter
Challenge for Washington Help from Overseas Marquis de Lafayette (French) Join battle for freedom
Trusted aid to Washington
Friedrich von Steuben (German)
Military tactics
Juan de Miralles (Spain)
Spent financial aid Money Problems No power to tax
Printed hundreds of millions of dollars
Not enough gold and silver to back dollars
Stopped issuing paper money Life on the Home Front War affected all Americans
Men off in military
Women take over duties at home Changing Attitudes Girls should get same education as boys
Abigail Adams
Women need the same rights as men
Liberty and freedom to ALL Treatment of Loyalists Every state had loyalists
Spied and informed on Patriots
Many fled
Those who stayed treated harshly
Mob violence
Arrested and tried as traitors Hopes for Equality Question slavery
Religious groups
“Contradicts Christianity and humanity”
Fought for freedom like everyone else
VE, NH, MA, and PA attempted to end slavery Lafayette von Steuben War in the West Most Native Americans sided with the British
British were less of a threat
West of Appalachian Mnts
Joseph Brant (Mohawk) led raids in NY and PA
Henry Hamilton-Rumored to have paid Natives for scalps of settlers Victory at Vincennes George Rogers Clark
175 soldiers on the western front
Capture fort in Vincennes, Indiana
Clark leaves and British recapture fort
Clark surprises British and recapture fort Glory At Sea British control American waterways
British blockade the American harbor
Prevent supplies and reinforcements from reaching Continental Army Privateers Build 13 American warships to break British blockade
Only 2 made it to sea
Privateers- Privately owned merchant ships equipped with weapons.
2,000 privateers
Easy to find crews John Paul Jones Sailed in old French ship
Bonhomme Richard
Battle with British Merchants ships
Fought with Serapis for three hours
Serapis Surrendered
Bonhomme Richard sank soon after Struggles in the South Patriots held strong
Patriots win at Wilmington and Charles Town
British realize they must change strategy
Plan a hard-hitting offensive to finish the war.
Concentrate on South were there was more Loyalists. British Victories Clinton sent 3,500 troops from NY to Savannah
Capture the town and most of the state
Clinton heads south and takes Charles Town
“We Look on America as at our feet.” British Victories Clinton returns to NY
Gen. Cornwallis in charge of troops in South
Patriots send Horatio Gates to face Cornwallis
Both armies meet at Camden, SC
Cornwallis won but realized they were in trouble. Guerrilla Warfare Britain received less help than they thought from Loyalists.
British attacked by small packs of colonials
Guerrilla Warfare- hit-and-run
Francis Marion- Swamp Fox
“The devil himself couldn’t catch Marion” Help from Spain Spain originally neutral
Governor Bernardo de Galvez of Louisiana opens port of New Orleans and loaned money to patriots
Ship supplies and ammunition to George Rogers Clark Help From Spain Finally declare war on Britain
Marched on British ports in lower Mississippi
Capture Baton Rouge, Natchez, Mobile, and Pensacola Patriot Victories King’s Mountain- 1,000 Loyalists defend outpost against Patriot sharpshooters
British retreat
Nathaniel Greene replaces Gates in the South
Greene splits army in two Greene and His Army One section defeated the British at Cowpens, SC
Other section joins Marion’s guerrilla raids
Reunite at Guilford Courthouse to meet Cornwallis
Greene retreats but Cornwallis sustained major losses
Cornwallis abandoned Carolina campaign. British Retreat Cornwallis marches north to Virginia
Raids state
Washington sends Lafayette and Anthony Wayne to face Cornwallis
Cornwallis makes camp at Yorktown
Awaits further orders from Clinton Planning For Yorktown Washington wanted to attack at Yorktown rather than NYC
Patriots hope for help from the French
French arrive in Newport, RI
5,000 soldiers under Gen. Comte de Rochambeau
Soldiers celebrated dressed in colorful uniforms Waiting on the French British block port and trap French in Newport
Washington camps North of NYC to watch Clinton and his army
Await second French fleet to attack British Change in Plans Cornwallis bottled up in Yorktown
Admiral Francois de Grasse (French) heads toward Chesapeake Bay
Washington secretly plans to attack Cornwallis, NOT Clinton in NYC
Plan is very SECRET! Secret Strategy Gen. Rochambeau marches to meet Washington
Together head south
Clinton has no clue of plan
Rochambeau and Washington meet Lafayette along with French fleet under Admiral De Grasse The Siege at Yorktown Plan worked perfectly
British confused
14,000 Patriots and French troops trapped 7,500 British and Hessians
De Grasse kept Cornwallis from escaping by sea Cornwallis’s Defeat American and French bombard Cornwallis
Supplies run low, wounded increase
Cornwallis surrendered
British march between French and Americans
British band- “The World Turned Upside Down.” Surrender Brit. still held Savannah, Charles Town, and NY.
Yorktown convinced British it was over.
Franklin, Adams, and Jay sent to Paris
Sign Treaty of Paris on Sept. 3, 1783.
Britain also made peace with France and Spain Independence Treaty of Paris Recognized U.S. as an independent nation
Remove all troops from America
From Canada to Spanish Florida
Americans can fish coast of Canada
Property returned to Loyalists The Newburgh Conspiracy Army headquarters in Newburgh, NY until peace treaty was signed
Congress refused to pay pension
Angers soldiers, petition
Washington cooled down the soldiers
Washington convinces congress to pay pensions Washington’s Farewell Says goodbye to soldiers at Fraunces’ Tavern in Manhattan
Formally resigned from army at a meeting of the Second Continental Congress in Annapolis.
Returned to Mount Vernon to live in peace Why the Americans Won Fought on own land
British struggled controlling the countryside
Help from France and Spain
The Revolution was a people’s movement Influence of American Revolution American make clear the principles of freedom and rights
Influence French Revolution
Enslaved Africans revolt in Saint Domingue and become an independent nation
“We have asserted our rights…we swear never to yield them to any power on earth.” Marquis de Lafayette "The future of America is closely bound up with the future of all mankind. http://www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/videos#the-people-speak-1 http://www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/videos#1781-victory-at-yorktown-helps-end-the-american-revolution http://www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/videos#yorktown http://www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/videos#george-washingtons-life-changing-battle http://www.history.com/shows/the-people-speak/videos/goldman-on-patriotism#goldman-on-patriotism
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