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The American Renaissance
Emphasis on Improvement & Reform (Change)
The 5 I's of Romanticism
renewal; rebirth; revival
"God gave humankind the gift of intuition, the gift of inspiration."
"Nature is a doorway to truth."
improvements in public education
improvements in medicine
abolitionists struggled to end slavery
feminists campaigned for women's rights
"I went to the woods because I wanted to live deliberately, I wanted to live deep and suck out all the marrow of life, to put to rout all that was life and not when I had come to die, discover that I had not lived.
--Henry David Thoreau
to go BEYOND . . .
"I sound my barbaric YAWP over the rooftops of the world."
Characteristics of Romanticism
interest in the common man and childhood
emphasis on self-reliance and use of the senses, emotions, and feelings
awe of nature
celebration of the individual whose creative spirit is more important than strict adherence to formal rules and/or traditional principles
interest in the bizarre, the occult, the exotic, the remote, the mysterious, the monstrous, the diseased, and even the satanic
importance of imagination
Transcendentalists believed in:
the power of thought and free will
openness of the human mind
the divinity of humanity and nature
"To the Virgins, To Make Much of Time"
Gather ye rosebuds while ye may,
Old time is still a-flying;
And this same flower that smiles today,
Tomorrow will be dying.
The glorious lamp of heaven, the Sun,
The higher he's a-getting;
The sooner will his race be run,
And nearer he's to setting.
That age is best, which is the first,
When youth and blood are warmer;
But being spent, the worse, and worst
Times still succeed the former.
Then be not coy, but use your time,
And while ye may, go marry;
For having lost but once your prime,
You may forever tarry.
"Nothing Gold Can Stay"
Nature's first green is gold,
Her hardest hue to hold.
Her early leaf's a flower,
But only so an hour.
Then leaf subsides to leave,
So Eden sank to grief,
So dawn goes down to day,
Nothing gold can stay.
What THEME do these two poems share?
Which characteristics of ROMANTICISM are reflected in these poems?
"The Road Not Taken"
Two roads diverged in a yellow wood,
And sorry I could not travel both
And be one traveler, long I stood
And looked down one as far as I could
To where it bent in the undergrowth;
Then took the other, as just as fair,
And having perhaps the better claim,
Because it was grassy and wanted wear;
Though as for that the passing there
Had worn them really about the same,
And both that morning equally lay
In leaves no step had troden black.
Oh! I kept the first for another day!
Yet knowing how way leads on to way,
I doubted if I should ever come back.
I shall be telling this with a sigh
Somewhere ages and ages hence:
Two roads diverged in a yellow wood, and I--
I took the one less traveled by,
And that has made all the difference.
What THEME do Thoreau and Frost share?
How is ROMANTICISM and/or TRANSCENDENTALISM reflected in Thoreau's writing and in Frost's poem?
What does Whitman mean by "barbaric YAWP"?
How does this idea reflect characteristics of ROMANTICISM and/or TRANSCENDENTALISM?
Oh Me! Oh Life! . . . of the questions of these recurring;
Of the endless trains of the faithless--of cities fill'd with the foolish . . .
What good amid these, O me, O life? . . .
That YOU are HERE--that life exists, and identity;
That the powerful play goes on, and YOU may CONTRIBUTE a verse.
How does the THEME presented here reflect characteristics of Romanticism &/or Transcendentalism?
Dead Poets Society
Two Approaches to Education:
1. a strict, TRADITIONAL, structured approach
2. a freer, STUDENT-CENTERED approach
1. PEER relationships
2. STUDENT-TEACHER relationships
3. PARENT-CHILD relationships
And . . .
Seize the Day!