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Transcript of Mexican-American War
In 1821, the empresario program allowed Americans to settle in Texas on land grants, bringing in 10,000 Americans (6)
In 1830, the program was suspended, but 20,000 more Americans entered Mexico in the next 6 years (6)
Texas gained independence in 1836 (1)
America wanted to expand & gain land that was already inhabited by US citizens
Offers to buy Mexican land were declined (1)
“Some supporters of Manifest Destiny favored rapid expansion and bold pursuit of American territorial claims, even at the risk of war with other nations.” (2)
US troops instigated a fight by moving into a “disputed zone between the Rio Grande and Nueces River that both countries had previously recognized as part of the Mexican state of Coahuila." (1)
The Republic of Texas
- Texas began as a part of New Spain. Until the Texas revolution, it was a State of Mexico after Mexican Independence in 1921.
-The Battle of San Jacinto (1836) was the decisive battle of Texan independence.
-Santa Anna's entire army of 1600 was defeated by Sam Houston's of 800 with 9 Texan deaths.
-Their Declaration of Independence was signed in Goliad in 1835
It was enacted at Washington- on-the Brazos in 1836.
-Polk added more to our country than anyone in history.
-Annexation of Texas 1845
-The Oregon Treaty 1846
-Treaty of Guadelupe- Hidalgo 1848
-Present day Texas, California, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, Washington, Oregon, Oklahoma, Colorado, Kansas , Wyoming, and Montana.
-Instructed by Polk to help avoid a war with Mexico. He was chosen for his connections.
-The deal was to be a settlement of all U.S claims against Mexico for Mexican recognition of the Rio Grande as the boundary. An offer of 25 million dollars was also made for California.
-Mexico rejected him and Slidell
- Resulted in a show of military force by General Zachary Taylor.
-Slidell later joined the Southern Confederacy
Effects of the War (AB)
Mexico lost California, Utah, Nevada, Arizona and New Mexico (almost 1/3 of its territory) to the US, being paid only $15 million (1)
13,000 American casualties (5)
“the war left tens of thousands of [Mexicans] orphans, widows and cripples. Artillery shelling and small-arms gunfire caused extensive destruction to buildings in a number of cities, in addition to damage to port facilities and roads.” (2)
“The naval blockade and movement of thousands of troops across the land severely affected the [Mexican] economy, disrupting internal and external trade, and the massive conscription of peasants caused a steep decline in agricultural and mineral production.” (2)
“Americans were reaching out beyond their border. Advancements in transportation and communications technologies were dissolving the nation's geographic and cultural isolation. Commerce expanded and travel increased as interest in exploration carried Americans around the globe.” (2)
by: Addie Brown, Whitney Mecca, and Alyssa Persad
North & South
1846 - 1848
Before the war, "the economy of the expanding United States far surpassed that of the fledgling Mexican state." (5)
The war cost about $75 million (1)
At the end of the war: the discovery of gold & silver in California & Nevada created hope for the American economy (1)
After the war: the Mexican economy is severely damaged
The widespread belief that it was America's duty & destiny to continuously expand
Coined by John O'Sullivan (7)
For some, this was religious calling to spread Christianity
“President James K. Polk, who believed the United States had a ‘manifest destiny’ to spread across the continent to the Pacific Ocean.” (1)
“a phrase used by leaders and politicians in the 1840s to explain continental expansion by the United States” (2)
“expansionists argued that the republic must continue to grow in order to survive.” (2)
The North was seen as predominately Repulicans (or Whigs), and the South as Democrats
“The United States declined to incorporate it into the union, largely because
political interests were against the addition of a new slave state” (1)
"The war was divisive for the
republic, exacerbated by the slavery issue and by factious politics in Washington." (2)
believed that Polk, a Southerner, was trying to gain land for the slaveholding
and Whigs generally opposed the war while
and Democrats tended to support it.” (4)
BEFORE & AFTER THE WAR
How many Americans viewed Manifest Destiny:
"An 1847 sketch of U.S. soldiers storming Monterrey. The sketch served as a cover for the biography of Zachary Taylor" (3)
by John Ghast (9)
-After Texas became independent, Mexico threatened war if the U.S. annexed Texas.
- Texas was left alone until Tyler.
- April 12, 1844, Tyler's Treaty of Annexation resulted in Mexico's severance of diplomacy with the U.S.
-The senate did not ratify
-With Polk's help, the treaty was later ratified.
-This was through a joint resolution of both houses of Congress
-Texas became a state on December 20, 1845
Conflict in the state was based on two factions, The Nationalists and their opponents.
-Lead by Mirabeau B. Lamar
-Wanted Texas to remain Independent
-Wanted to remove Native Americans
-Wanted to expand Texas to the West Coast.
-Lead by Sam Houston
-Wanted Texas to be annexed by the U.S.
- Wanted to live peacefully with Native Americans
Became the 10th president of the United States after the death of former President William Henry Harrison.
Tried annexing Texas through the Treaty of Annexation, however, there was not enough votes through the Senate for it to pass.
Before Tyler left office he tried annexing Texas again through the help of the new President James Polk. The joint resolution was passed successfully on March 1, 1845 and Texas became part of the Unites States on December 29th.
Taylor later died in 1862
Tried to acquire California and New Mexico by sending a crew to offer Mexico a large sum of $20 million plus the damage claims that was owed to Americans.
Mexico refused because this would lessen their power even more. As a result, General Zachary Taylor was sent in to persuade Mexico.
This resulted in Mexico retaliating and attacking General Taylor and his army.
Congress declared war and after many victories the American Army moved into Mexico City. Mexico then gave up New Mexico and California for $ 15 million and damage claims.
Polk later died in June 1849. He was the 11th President of the U.S.
-California, like Texas, was under Spain till Mexican independence.
-California was apprehensive of Mexican rule. They did not mind Spanish Rule
-Considering becoming independent.
-Much political instability.
-After Texas became independent, Mexico began to lose its hold.
-Battles broke out between California and Mexico and soon, Californians had enough. They hoped for the U.S. to make them a state
ended the fighting.
The Battle of Buena Vista
occurred on February 23, 1847 and was between General Zachary Taylor and General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.
Taylor sent his army in a mountain pass near the Hacienda Buena Vista.
Santa Anna ordered an all out assault on Taylor and his army of 5,000 men.
By that evening , Taylor ordered a counterattack. Santa Anna was completely unaware of it.
However, at the end of the battle the Mexican Army won and retreated home.
-War was declared on Mexico and Polk sent John C. Fremont to try to keep peace in
-in 1846, the U.S. was in control of California.
-The Bear Flag revolt, led by Fremont, resulted in the formation of the California Battalion to fight Mexican Governor's Pio Pico's army.
- A truce was ordered and the Treaty of Couenga ended the fighting.
-The treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo definitively left California in U.S. possession.
*the red is Santa Anna's path
The Capture of Vera Cruz
General Winfield Scott and his army of 10,000 men arrived at Collado Beach and headed into the city where they were met with 3,000 Mexican soldiers.
both sides underwent heavy fire
Veracruz eventually fell on March 28, 1847.
The General of the Mexican army refused to accept defeat and as a result General Juan Landero took over and surrendered the city over to Scott.
The Battle of Cerro Gordo
After the Battle of Vera Cruz, General Scoot moved his army away from Vera Cruz. Mexican General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna blocked the mountain pass of Cerro Gordo.
7,000 American troops where sent by General David Twiggs to go around the army but the Mexican army was sent to cut therm off. However, the American troops won.
*A painting depicting the war
by Carl Nebel
Many abolitionists opposed the war due to more possible slave states in the country.
Slave owners wanted this newly acquired territory to become slaves states.
Northerners wanted the opposite.
Because of the political battle that was going on, The Compromise was drawn up in 1850.
As a result slavery continued to flourish.
(published May 1847)