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Causes and Effects of the American Revolution

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catherine wellen

on 15 January 2013

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Transcript of Causes and Effects of the American Revolution

Effects Setting the Stage for Rebellion Reasons for Revolution Effects of the
American Revolution Resolution Overall, taxation without representation was the major cause of the American Revolution, and thus the United States of America stands here today as a free nation of justice, equality, and liberty. Though the nation faced multiple difficulties as a result of the American Revolution, it set forth the stages for a free nation where people could prosper and live as "one nation under God, indivisible, with Liberty and Justice for all." Causes Causes and Effects of the American Revolution By: Catherine Wellen The Rise of a Commercial Empire: Until the mid-seventeenth century, the English leaders ignored the American colonists for the most part
England provided no military assistance for the colonies
With the Restoration of Charles the Second and the Stuart monarchy, intervention replaced indifference regarding the colonies
Charles II wanted to bring the colonies more tightly under its mother country. New regulatory policies were placed upon the Colonists Economic Competition: Economic competition grew between European Countries
The idea of Mercantilism spread throughout Europe
Mercantilism- the economic theory that the world's wealth is a fixed supply, and in order to increase a nation's wealth, it needed to export more goods than it imported.
To achieve this balance, England wanted to control trade among the colonies to take advantage of its rich supply in raw materials. England wanted to protect is own markets from France and Holland
They had not sense of a market system whatsoever
They concluded that the only way to increase a nation's wealth was at the expense of its competitors Several powerful interest
groups looked to colonial commercial commerce to solve different problems: Charles II wanted money
English Merchants wanted to exclude Dutch rivals from American Markets
English Gentry in Parliament wanted to expand its domestic shipbuilding industry to create a stronger navy
Everyone wanted a favorable balance of trade that could be achieved by increasing exports while decreasing imports Regulation
on Colonial Trade: Navigation Acts passed by Parliament in 1660
most important piece of imperial legislation passed before the American Revoution
Its predicaments included: No ship could trade in the colonies unless it had been constructed in either England or America and carried a crew that was at least 75% English
certain enumerated goods of great value that were not produced in England, including tobacco, cotton, indigo, dye woods, and ginger, could be transported only to an English or other colonial port The French and Indian War Aka the Seven Years War
War fought between the French and British over territorial claims in the Ohio River Valley to expand fur trade
After the British Victory, England suffered large monetary losses
Parliament attempted to recoup financial losses from the war by taxing American colonists on all printed documents The Sugar Act: passed by Parliament in 1764
imposed new duties (taxes) on American commodities such as sugar, molasses, textiles, coffee, and indigo
Colonists became infuriated because they felt that they should not be taxed the same as British residents, because they did not receive the same benefits or rights as English residence
Virginia House of Burgesses asserted, "no taxation without representation." The Stamp Act Parliament passed the Stamp Act on March 22, 1765
Required all Americans to purchase tax stamps for any printed documents including newspapers, legal documents, marriage licenses, and more
Opposition to the Stamp Act grew throughout the colonies
In 1765, the Massachusetts General Court organized opposition to the Stamp Act.
Representatives from nine colonies dreafted a petition calling for the repeal of the Stamp Act
Street Mobs such as the Sons of Liberty filled the streets destroying royal offices in Massachusetts and New York
When the Act was officially implemented on November 1, all stamp agents sent from England were intimidated into resignation from their post
Stamp Act was repealed in March, 1766 by Parliament, but the Declaratory Acts were passes in retaliation reaffirming England's right to pass any law in America Passed by Parliament on March 24, 1765
Required Americans to provide housing and provisions to British soldiers including firewood, candles, and beer
Colonists viewed this as a way for British soldiers to oppress American Freedoms
Many saw this as another form of taxation without representation
Some colonists refused to pay Quartering Act The Townsend Acts Passed by Parliament in 1767
authorized Parliament to issue a new set of taxes on in demand import such as glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea
The Massachusetts General Court led opposition by promoting the nonimportation of British goods (boycott).
Royal officials in America became enraged and ordered the Massachusetts General Court dissolved.
600 soldiers began patrolling the streets of Boston. Colonial militia groups united and an uprising seemed likely.
Colonists continued to boycott British goods and British soldiers continued patrolling the streets of Boston. The Boston Massacre March 5, 1770, a patriot in Boston began harassing a redcoat named John Goldfinch standing guard. Another redcoat nearby, named Hugh White, joined Goldfinch to defend him. White became agitated with the harassment and struck the patriot in the face with his musket. As the patriot cried out in pain, a mob of fifty or so Bostonians gathered pelting rocks and ice at the redcoats. In retaliation, the redcoats fired against the unarmed civilians, and five were killed
This led to anti-British sentiment in Massachusets. Boston Tea Party This was in retaliation to the Tea Act of 1773, which granted the East India Company a Monopoly over American Tea trade
The Sons of Liberty, led by Samuel Adams, set out on December 16, 1773 to show Parliament how they felt about the Tea Act
They boarded the British ship, Dartmouth, docked in Boston Harbor, dressed up as Indians, and dumped the entire load of tea into the water. In retaliation, Parliament enforces the Intolerable Acts: 1.) The Coercive Acts – These acts, including the Boston Harbor bill, closed the harbor to all commercial traffic until Americans paid for the tea they dumped.

2.) The Administration of Justice Act – This act required the transfer of all royal officials charged with capital crimes in America to courts in Great Britain.

3.) Massachusetts Government Act – This act ended self-rule in the colonies and made all elected officers in America subject to British appointment.

4.) Quartering Act – This was simply a new version of the 1765 Quartering Act which required Americans to provide accomodations to British soldiers if necessary.

5.) Quebec Act – This act extended the Canadian border (British territory) into the Ohio River Valley and eliminated lands that were claimed by Massachusetts, Virginia and Connecticut.

These acts resulted in the formation of the Continental Congress. First Continental Congress In response to the Intolerable Acts, America’s first Continental Congress met on September 5, 1774 that lasted for two months
56 delegates from 12 colonies met at Carpenter’s Hall in Philadelphia to discuss a unified position and Parliament’s assertion that it could control the colonies.
Georgia was the only colony that refused to send a delegate.
As part of the convention, John Adams drafted the Declaration of Rights
the delegates agreed to resume the boycott on British goods until the Intolerable Acts were repealed
The congress agreed to meet again in May of 1775. The Second Continental Congress On May 10, 1775, the Continental Congress met for the time in Philadelphia
The delegates to the Second Continental Congress chose John Hancock, a wealthy Massachusetts merchant and chief financial contributor to the Sons of Liberty, as president
The delegtion authorized the creation of the Continental Army and George Washington as Commander-in-Chief.
They sent a petition known as the Olive Branch Petition to Parliament to express their wish for peace and to appeal to the king to respect their rights
the Olive Branch Petition was rejected by England, and King George hired 30,000 German troops to fight alongside the British in War against America
On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress approved the measure to declare independence from England. Two days later, the actual Declaration of Independence was approved. the Olive Branch Petition was rejected by England, and King George hired 30,000 German troops to fight alongside the British in War against America Thomas Paine and Common Sense On January 10, 1776, he anonymously published Common Sense, a pro-independence pamphlet that would stimulate the colonists against the British and that would greatly influence the expediency of the Declaration of Independence.
Paine’s pamphlet quickly spread through the colony’s literate population and became the international voice of the pro-independence colonies. Common Sense would quickly become the top selling publication of the 18th century. Declaration of Independence written to explain to foreign nations why the colonies had chosen to separate themselves from Great Britain
Thomas Jefferson was chosen to draft the letter – which he did in a single day.
Four other members, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston, Benjamin Franklin and John Adams were part of the committee to help Jefferson.
In the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson explained that a body of people have a right to change governments if that government becomes oppressive. He further explained that governments fail when they no longer have the consent of the governed. Since Parliament clearly lacked the consent of the American colonists to govern them, it was no longer legitimate.
The Declaration was presented to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was approved with a few minor changes.
John Hancock, of Massachusetts was the first of the 56 signers of the Declaration of Independence, . The Treaty of Paris Signed on September 3, 1783
negotiation between the United States and Great Britain, ending the revolutionary war and recognizing American independence The Articles of Confederation America's first formal Constitution
It included a weak central government and gave the states too much power
It had few powers and had no jurisdiction over American citizens.
It had no authority to tax citizens
revenue would have to be generated by requesting money form the states.
It was extremely difficult to create laws
All 13 states had to agree if amendments were to be made The Constitutional Convention resulted in the elimination of the Articles of Confederation and the formation of a new, more effective government and constitution
held at Independence Hall in 1787
55 men from throughout the colonies convened for the purpose of strengthening the Articles of Confederation.
George Washington was chosen to preside over the convention
Two Plans Presented:
The Virginia Plan- representation based on population
The New Jersey Plan-representation based on the state, regardless of population
The larger states supported the Virginia Plan while the smaller states supported the New Jersey plan
On July 5, 1787, a special committee was formed to try to come to a compromise regarding the issue of representation.
The Great Compromise, as it came to be known, formed an alternative plan in which the House of Representatives would include one state delegate for every 40,000 citizens of a particular state, and the Senate would have the same number of delegates, regardless of population, for each state.
On July 26, another committee was formed to begin drafting what would become the U.S. Constitution. On August 17, 1787, the Constitution was signed.
By 1790, all thirteen colonies ratified the constitution and became states. Effects of the
American Revolution The Federalist Papers After Delaware and Pennsylvania ratified the Constitution, other states began considering their options. Some states were not sure if signing the Constitution was in their best interest.
In attempt to persuade the eleven other states to ratify, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay wrote the eighty five essays known as the Federalist Papers
. The Federalist Papers outlined the defects of the Articles of Confederation and the advantages of the newly proposed Constitution
Alexander Hamilton, in particular, clearly explained functions of the three branches of the new government – the executive, legislative and judicial, including important aspects of a functioning government such as a system of checks and balances, federalism, separated powers, pluralism and representation. The Federalist Papers After Delaware and Pennsylvania ratified the Constitution, other states began considering their options. Some states were not sure if signing the Constitution was in their best interest.
In attempt to persuade the eleven other states to ratify, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay wrote the eighty five essays known as the Federalist Papers
. The Federalist Papers outlined the defects of the Articles of Confederation and the advantages of the newly proposed Constitution
Alexander Hamilton, in particular, clearly explained functions of the three branches of the new government – the executive, legislative and judicial, including important aspects of a functioning government such as a system of checks and balances, federalism, separated powers, pluralism and representation. The Bill of Rights Even in spite of the United States Constitution, American citizens worried that there was no formal document to outline their personal freedoms.
Congress met in New York in 1789 to construct a Bill of Rights
This includes the first 10 amendments of the Constitution that are still present today to preserve the rights and liberties of individuals
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