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Kristen Swanson

Nursing Theorists Presentation

Emily Youngblood

on 13 February 2014

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Transcript of Kristen Swanson

“Any context that influences or is influenced by the designated client.”
Nursing Theory Presentation:
Kristen Swanson

– Health and well-being is “to live the subjective, meaning-filled experience of wholeness. Wholeness involves a sense of integration and becoming wherein all facets of being are free to be expressed.”
Is caring a process observable only in the context of two people relating?
“Unique beings who are in the midst of becoming and whose wholeness is made manifest in thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.”
Case Study
Fifteen percent of pregnancies end in a miscarriage. Kristen Swanson conducted a clinical study titled "Couples Miscarriage Healing Project" in which she studied hundreds of women after they had a miscarriage in an effort to see if therapy after the fact was beneficial to either the father or the mother. The primary outcome of the study showed high amounts of grief and depression. Through therapy though it was shown that couples that communicated their feelings and hopes for the future through validation towards each other recovered faster than other couples who internalized their emotions. With multiple sessions to deal with their grief and depression most couples were resolved of their symptoms. (Swanson, 1991)
Biography: Kristen Swanson
Is it an intent embedded in the behavior of a caregiver?
Is it a perception identifiable only through the eyes of a caregiver?
Can caring be taught?
Is it a moral ideal?
Is it a way of being in the world?
Maintaining Belief
Sustaining faith in the other's capacity to get through an event or transition and face a future with meaning.

- Striving to understand the meaning of an event in the life of another, focusing on the person cared for, seeking cues, assessing meticulously, and engaging both the one caring and the one cared for in the process of knowing, while avoiding assumption.
Being With
- Being emotionally present for the other.
Doing For
- Doing for others what one would do for oneself.
- Facilitating the other's passage through life transitions and unfamiliar events by focusing on the event.
(Nursing Theories, 2012)
(Nursing Theories, 2012)
(Nursing Theories, 2012)
(Nursing Theories, 2012)
(Nursing Theories, 2012)
(Nursing Theories, 2012)
(Nursing Theories, 2012
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Informed caring for the well-being of others.

(Nursing Theories, 2012)
- Master's Degree: University of Pennsylvania in 1978

- Nursing Degree: University of Rhode Island in 1975
- Doctorate Degree: University of Colorado specializing in Psychosocial Nursing
- Affiliate professor and chair of Family and Child Nursing at the University of Washington Medical Center.
- Professor of Nursing Leadership and was also the sixth dean at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Nursing.
- Practiced in the cardiac critical care unit at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center
(Nursing Theories, 2012)
Kristen Swanson's Theory of Caring

Bailey, D. (2009). Caring defined: a comparison and analysis.

Journal For Human Caring
, 13(1), 16-31.

Directory, (2014). Nursing.unc.edu. Retrieved February 7, 2014, from https://


Masters, K. (2012).
Nursing theories: a framework for professional practice /

Kathleen Masters.
Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning, c2012.

Mathes, S. (2011). Implementing a caring model.
Creative Nursing
, 17(1), 36-42.


Parker, M. E. (2005).
Nursing Theories and Nursing Practice
, (351-359). Philadelphia:

F.A. Davis.

Ray, L. (2011, March 9).
About Swanson's theory
. Retrieved February 7, 2014, from


Swanson, K. M. (1991). Empirical development of a middle range theory of caring.

Nursing Research,
40(3), 161-166.

Tonges, R., & Mary, J. (n.d.). Retrieved from February 7, 2014, from http://



Winter Haven Hospital. (n.d.). Retrieved from February 7, 2014, from http://


(1991, 1993, 1999)
- ".. Awarded the National Research Service postdoctoral fellowship from the National Center for Nursing Research (Ray)."
- During her time at the University of Colorado she began studying Psychology and her focus became centered around concepts such as loss, stress, coping, caring, transitions, and person- environment fit. (Nursing Theories, 2012)
(Bailey, 2009)
(Bailey, 2009)
(Bailey, 2009)
(Bailey, 2009)
(Bailey, 2009)
(Bailey, 2009)
Jean Watson founded the Model of Human Care which focused on a good environment and strong relationship between patients and their caregivers. Kristen looked to these ideals to build her own concepts of nursing care.

(Mathes, 2011)
Winter Haven Hospital follows Kristen Swanson's theory of caring in an effort to provide an "extraordinarily healing environment" for their patients.

- Hospitals enact her theories all the time and nurses should continue to stay conscious of her ideals in order to perform their best for each patient including, maintaining belief, knowing, being with, doing for, and enabling.
(Winter Haven)
- While attending a presentation during her doctoral program, Swanson became fascinated with women's stories of pregnancy loss. Swanson decided to learn more about the topic while focusing on care through a miscarriage.

These ideas led to her formation of the "Theory of Caring".
(Nursing Theorists, 2012)
Top 5 caring behaviors valued by patients are that the nurse...
1.) Helps the patient fell confident that adequate care was provided.

2.) Knows how to give shots and manage equipment.

3.) Gets to know the patient as a person.

4.) Treats the patient with respect.

5.) Puts the patient first, no matter what.

(Parker, 2005)
Top 5 caring behaviors valued by nurses are:
1.) Listens to the patient.

2.) Allows expression of feelings.

3.) Touches when comforting is needed.

4.) Perceives the patient's needs.

5.) Realizes the patients knows him -
or herself best.
(Parker, 2005)
- For the future, Kristen sees the importance in stepping back and asking what an ecological perspective on caring and health might look like, it is clear the work that lies ahead must focus on the political, economic, social, institutions, spiritual, and personal practices necessary to promote a world where healthy human ecology is possible.
(Parker, 2005)
Providing a caring environment throughout the hospital enables the patients to have a bright outlook of their future during the duration of their care.

Theory of Caring
Five Core Concepts
Four Metaparadigm Concepts
Full transcript