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Chapter 3- The Biosphere
Transcript of Chapter 3- The Biosphere
The Biosphere Biosphere- all biomes and living things
organisms interact with each other and the environment *ecology- scientific study of interactions between organisms and their environments *biotic factor- living parts of an environment
*abiotic factor- nonliving parts of an environment
Biotic and Abiotc factors have strong influences on each other *Ecology is practiced by: observing, experimenting, and modeling.
Observation- ask questions about an environment
Experimentation- test a hypothesis
Modeling- Use models to interpret data or to predict results over a long period of time. Autotroph/primary producers- organisms that produce their own food, and fix energy into organic compounds
*create energy-rich compounds that are later used by other organisms higher in the food web
Photosynthesis- light is used to fix energy into energy rich compounds
Chemosynthesis- harness chemical energy through inorganic compounds Heterotroph/ consumers- organisms that obtain energy through digestion of organic compounds obtained from other organisms *Energy flows one way only.
Producers fix the sun’s energy into organic compounds, which are then passed onto through various consumers on different levels of the food web.
At the end, decomposer convert dead material into detritus, which is digested by primary consumers and detrivores
Trophic levels- different levels on the food web
First level- primary producers
Second level- herbivores/primary consumers
Third level- carnivores *only 10% of the energy from one trophic level is passed onto the next.
This restricts the size of trophic levels. The populations of organisms that are higher up on the food chain are smaller than those of organisms that are lower on the food chain.
Ecological Pyramids- help to illustrate this concept
Biomass- total amount of material that is “alive” in an environment *Matter is recycled all throughout an ecosystem. Biogeochemical cycles- processes by which materials and nutrients in an environment are recycled
Phosphorus Cycle *Limiting nutrient- if enough sunlight and water are available, then the productivity of an ecosystem is limited by the availability of nutrients http://www.utc.edu/Faculty/Deborah-McAllister/educ575/wq04michaelkavur/image002.jpg http://ejad.best.vwh.net/java/population/images/food_web.jpg