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Elements of Art

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Liz Ross

on 1 June 2016

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Transcript of Elements of Art

Why do we use the Elements?
When creating art, an artist is faced with a number of questions.

Look at the painting - think about how the artist (Paul Cezanne) answered the following:

* What colors will I use?
* Will the objects look flat, or will they appear deep and realistic?
* Will it appear rough or smooth to the touch?
LINE
Line
1. Get out your Elements of Art Book.
2. On page 2, title it "LINE" and write the following definition:
Examples of
Line can control the feel of a piece of art.
Vertical Lines can represent strength, power, and masculinity.
The Language of Art
In order to analyze and discuss art, you must first understand the language.

The language of art has its own vocabulary made up of 7 visual elements: Line, Shape, Form, Space, Texture, Color, and Value.

Sometimes it is hard to tell one element from the other, but it is blending of these elements that permits you to see the artwork as the artist intends.
Elements of Art
The path made by a moving point.
Diagonal Lines can represent energy or can give the viewer an uneasy feeling.
Curved Lines also express movement, but in a more graceful and flowing way.
Horizontal Lines can make the viewer feel comfortable, calm, and relaxed.
The Art of Drawing
Drawing has many great uses in art. Drawing techniques involve using different types of line. One useful technique is creating shading. There are 4 basic shading techniques. You will use different types of line to create them:

1. Hatching
2. Crosshatching
3. Blending
4. Stippling
Line Study
You will complete a line study worksheet to practice shading techniques using different line types. Once you complete the worksheet, you will glue it into your Elements of Art Book on page 2 or 3.
Shape
Shape is an area defined by a line that begins and ends at the same point.

Shapes are two-dimensional, meaning they only have length and width.
All shapes fall into one of two categories:

GEOMETRIC and ORGANIC
GEOMETRIC
Geometric shapes or regular shapes are easy to recognize. Math can be used to find information about these shapes and these shapes generally have a specific name associated with them. Examples include: circle, triangle, square, and trapezoid.
Organic
Organic or freeform shapes are shapes that seem to follow no rules. Organic shapes generally do not have a name associated with them and are typically not man-made.
Shapes defined by objects are positive shapes (space). Shapes defined around objects are negative shapes (space).
Positive and negative shapes
By organizing geometric and organic shapes, we can draw anything. Even complicated objects become easy to draw when we isolate basic geometric and organic shapes.
Project: zentangle still life
You are to create a still life (a painting or drawing of an arrangement of objects) of the fruit bowl with a Zentangle background.

Requirements:
*Fruit can be any color as long as the
shape of the fruit are a close replica of
the picture.
*You need at least 4 different Zentangle
patterns.
*Be able to recognize organic and
geometric shapes in your artwork.
*Use pastel or oils on the fruit and black
sharpie on the background to portray positive and negative shapes.
Zentangles are miniature pieces of unplanned, abstract, black and white art created through a very specific Method from an ensemble of simple, structured patterns called tangles
zentangles
What is color?
Color is what the eye sees when light bounces off of an object.

To see color, you have to have light. When light shines on an object some colors bounce off the object and others are absorbed by it. Our eyes only see the colors that are bounced off or reflected.

The sun’s rays contain all the colors of the rainbow mixed together. This mixture is known as white light. When white light strikes an object, it appears white to us because it absorbs no color and reflects all color equally. A black object absorbs all colors equally and reflects none, so it looks black to us. While artists consider black a color, scientists do not because black is the absence of all color.
Color Wheel
Primary Hues: Red, Blue, Yellow
*They are primary because they can be used to mix all the other colors. They are found in nature and cannot themselves be made by the mixing of other colors.
HUE: A color's name
Combining Colors
The following are common color schemes:
Monochromatic:
Colors that are different values of a single hue. For example:
Analogous:
Colors that are side by side on the color wheel and share a hue.
Warm and Cool Colors:
Colors on opposite sides of the color wheel give opposing feelings. The warm colors; reds, and yellows, are often associated with fire and sun, which suggest warmth. On the other side, cool colors; blues and greens, are often associated with water, sky, and spring, which suggest coolness. Psychologically, cool colors are said to be calming, whereas warm colors energize. Optically, cool colors appear to recede, and warm colors give the impression of being closer.
The Study:
You will practice mixing paints by painting the color wheel.
The project:
Graffiti Names
You will...
1. Mix the primary colors in order to paint your name in secondary and tertiary colors.
2. Create your name in graffiti style lettering.

Value
Value is the lightness or darkness of a hue.
You can change the value of a hue by adding black or white.

A lighter value (by adding white) is called a TINT.

A darker value (by adding black) is called a SHADE.
Different types of pencils for drawing
The Study: The Value scale
You will practice the value scale. Use a pencil and practice pencil pressure. The worksheet will be glued on page 8 of your booklet.


You will also practice value with charcoal by studying light changes on a cupcake wrapper or coffee filter. This will be glued on page 9.
The project: My favorite recipe!
Choose a recipe (preferably a favorite recipe you've made before) and illustrate it in whichever medium and method you want.
Think about page design (ex: where images are placed. Where your text will be placed.) You may use a computer to type your text.
Form
Objects that have three-dimensions.
It's like taking an air pump and inflating a flat shape. So if you were to inflate a circle, you'd get a sphere.

Form and shape are very closely linked. Just as with shape, form can also be grouped as geometric or organic.
form in artwork
Alexander Calder was an American sculptor known as the originator of the mobile.
His contour line drawings (1) (organic shapes) were transformed into three dimensional artwork using wire to create the lines (2).
(1)
(2)
These were known as Linear Sculptures
Calder shifted from figurative linear sculptures in wire to abstract forms in motion by creating the first mobiles. Composed of pivoting lengths of wire counterbalanced with thin metal fins, the appearance of the entire piece was randomly arranged and rearranged in space by chance simply by the air moving the individual parts.
All About Clay
There are 3 basic types of clay:
Porcelain
Stoneware
Earthenware
Clay comes from the ground, usually in areas where streams or rivers once flowed. It is made from minerals, plant life, and animals—all the ingredients of soil. Over time, water pressure breaks up the remains pulverizing them into fine particles. Larger particles are filtered out through rocks and sand, leaving silt to settle into beds of clay. How far silt travels from its source and how pure the silt is determines the type of clay it becomes.
terms to know
Wedging:
A procedure for preparing clay by hand.
The lump of clay is repeatedly thrown down to remove any air.

Slip:
Watered down clay.

Score:
A process of making
tiny grooves or slices in the
clay.
On page 10 of your Elements of Art Book, write the following:
pinch pots
the project:
OBJECTIVE: Create a pinch pot of your choice. You must have at least one attachment using the slip and score method.
texture
Refers to how the way things feel, or look as though they might feel, if touched.

IMPLIED VS. ACTUAL

Actual texture refers to the tactile qualities of the physical surface of the object. In other words, how does the surface of the work feel when you touch it?

Implied texture in artwork contains the illusion of actual textures. Like other implied formal elements it represents a material or object in the physical world. Implied texture is used to allow the viewer to enter into the scenario that the artist has created. It can also be used to give the viewer information about the object that is represented.
actual texture
the study
You will create implied texture by drawing what you think the following adjectives would look like.
For Example: Woven
the project
Original Design
Minimum of 8 Patterns
At least one Color
1 Actual Texture
(Glitter, beads, mosaic tiles, sand, rocks)

Zentangle Tiles!
Objective:
Space
Is the distance or area between, around, above, below, and within things.
There are 6 ways an artist can create the illusion of space:

Overlapping
Size
Placement
Detail or Shading
Color and Value
Linear Perspective


Imagine that the room you are sitting in is a painting. Look around the room. Be on the alert for the use of techniques that lead to a feeling of deep space. For example, which objects, if any, overlap? Which objects appear to be smaller than others?

Now make a sketch of the room, replacing some real objects with ones from your imagination (optional). Make sure that your new objects follow the same rules of space as the old ones.

When you have finished, discuss your drawing with other members of the class. Can they identify the space-creating techniques in your work?
The Study

Positive space is best described as the areas in a work of art that are the areas of interest. Negative space is area around the areas of interest.
Positive and Negative Space
The project
Notan Art!
For this assignment we will be working with the Japanese concept of Notan. Notan means dark and light. The theory behind Notan is: positive and negative areas should complement one another. They must coexist without one dominating the other.
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