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Russian Revolution & Stalin

Life under the Tsar, revolution, civil war & Stalin
by

Diarmuid Canning

on 6 September 2013

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Transcript of Russian Revolution & Stalin

RUSSIAN REVOLUTION
Autocratic
Poor leader
Left Tsarina in charge while leading army
Ignored Duma
Unpopular -German
Inexperience/incompetent
Influenced by Rasputin
TSAR
TSARINA
Mad monk/healer/mystic
Hated by nobility & peasants alike BUT
Influenced both Tsar & Tsarina
Finally killed by nobles worried about his influence
RASPUTIN
Russia covered 1/6 of the world
Ruling class very wealthy
Rest very poor
Army & secret police ensured no-one rocked the boat
In late 19th century set down ideas for govt in ‘THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO’
Est. a classless society
No private property
Everything owned commonly
Everyone gets a fair share
Work together for good of all
CAPITALISM TO COMMUNISM
Karl Marx
Poisoned - shot - drowned - burnt
November 1917
Vladimir Lenin (Bolsheviks/Communists)
Russia to USSR
Tsar & royal family killed
Est. a DICTATORSHIP
Civil War 1918-1921
Reds vs. Whites (help from GB, Fr, US)
Reds won
Popular support
Leon Trotsky led army
1924
Lenin dies
STALIN
Name means ‘man of steel’
General Secretary of Communist Party in 1922 – built up vital contacts
Allowed him grab power on Lenin’s death
Aim - to make USSR a world power w/in 10 yrs
COLLECTIVISATION
FIVE YEAR PLANS
COLLECTIVISATION
Peasants to combine farms into bigger collective farms.
Allow them buy machinery, be more efficient, and create a surplus to send to the towns
Plan ignored - famine in 1929, Stalin made collectivisation compulsory.
Peasants burned crops & killed their animals rather than hand them over to the state.
Led to slaughter of the Kulaks
By 1939, 99 % of land collectivised
Farming was run by government
Government took 90 % of production left rest for workers
More food to feed workers in industry.
Surplus of food to sell overseas to bring money into the country.
He needed people to leave the land and go to work in industry.
Excuse to destroy the kulaks, who believed in private ownership, not communism.
Why did Stalin collectivise the farms?
Costs
3m kulaks were killed another 2m sent to Gulags in Siberia.
Famines while collectivisation was introduced killed 5m.
Results of Collectivisation
Grain production increased hugely.
Russia sold large quantities of grain to other countries.
17m people left countryside to work in towns.
The kulaks were eliminated.
Peasants closely under the government's control
Five Year Plans
To become a world power needed to increase industrial production
Stakhanovite workers - rewarded.

USSR gave opportunities to women - crèches set up so they could also work.

Women became doctors and scientists, as well as canal diggers and steel workers.

But many workers slaves from gulags.
Wreckers could be executed or imprisoned.
But the improvements in production phenomenal:
Coal - from 36 million tonnes to 130 million tonnes
Iron - from 3 million tonnes to 15 million tonnes
Oil - from 2 million tonnes to 29 million tonnes
Electricity - from 5,000 million to 36,000 million kilowatts
Communication that is aimed at influencing the attitude of society toward some cause or position.
PROPAGANDA
Here are 8 images from the USSR, what is your interpretation of each?
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Weathy peasant farmers
Forced labour camps
Stalin's Purges
Show Trials
Full transcript