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Democracy and Populism
Transcript of Democracy and Populism
Government of the people, by the people, for the people -- Abraham Lincoln
- physical and geographically bounded community --> virtual community --> forum, Facebook groups, etc.
- active and participatory citizens - online participation and deliberation
Three Approaches to Democracy
- based on individual interest, aggregation of individual choice --> e-voting
- informed decision --> free flow of information, e-government
- individual empowerment --> access, rights to communication
- representation and institutional democracy
- social contract --> state and individual (consent, constitutional, law, rights.
- shared value and "good" based on identity and purpose - community media
- community based decision - town hall - IRC and interactive online decision making process
- freedom of association - e-group, against surveillance
- persuasion rather than community norm --> interactive media
- collective decision guided by agenda, organization purpose, norms - IRC chatting
- public (inter-subjective) vs. private and collective --> online public sphere
- rational and critical discourse vs. smear, hate speech, rumor and distortion
- universal claim vs. social contract and collective norms
The Populist logic and new media
Failure of representative democracy
Rise of contentious politics
- a charismatic leader
- simple solution
- action frame
- thin-centered ideology that addressed power structure
- antagonistic relation between "people" and "elite"
- popular sovereignty - people
- politics of will and decision
- people as homogenous entity
- people vs enemy (class or ethnic)
the marginalized 99%
Real issues but misled solution
- failed and never accomplished universal suffrage
- election politics - small parties and thus extremist
- real social conflict:
e.g birth tourism - 2001: 610 to 2011: 35,000
e.g immigration quota system - 150 per day approved by CN gov. 10% of the city population since 1997. In 2012 the number of adult offspring and retired parent out-numbered dependent kids and marriage couples.
e.g tourist oriented economy and the disappearance of local shops
Discussion: the car crash and death of HKU mainland student graduate
- individual cannot be detached from community --> anomie
- community / collective is more than the sum of individual choices e.g welfare