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Transcript of Bioethics presentation
Fertilization Should Assisted Reproductive Technologies be Regulated?
Spencer Weinstein and Amanda Wigglesworth process where two gametes fuse together, beginning the creation of a new individual Steps in fertilization vary from species but mainly consist of: sperm meets egg (must be same species/gametes)
one sperm to an egg
genetic material fuse
metabolic events occurs thus beginning development Meiotic Cell Division Structure of Gametes Fusing of Genetic Material Prevention of polyspermy Assisted Reproduction Technologies In vitro fertilization Are they going against nature? View points on ART In the Roman Catholic Church it is condemned Without regulation women are being treatmented experimentially
- Lori Andrews "Legal restrictions would infringe the procreative liberty of infertile couples and require compelling justification"
-John Robertson What do you think? •Implants into uterus and embryo development occurs as it would in a normal, non-IVF pregnancy eggs begin to divide place gametes in petri dish to induce fertilization transferred into the female’s uterus Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT) • Enhance probability of fertilization by directly manipulating oocyte outside of woman’s body • Oldest and most standard form of ART retrieve eggs and sperm from female and male partners Developed in early 1970s, first success in 1978 England Success depends heavily on age of female and increase chance of multiple births Less than three percent of patients who seek infertility treatment will need to use IVF
o Most use hormonal therapy and artificial insemination incubated at body temperature for 12-18 hours typically women are given are injected with chemicals to produce more hormones causing several eggs to mature at once Placed after three days after egg removal, a good embryo has 6-8 equal sized cells and undamaged cytoplasm Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) Cryopreservation haploid nucleus
propulsion system to move the nucleus
a sac of digestive enzymes that enable the nucleus to enter the egg Sperm consists of: an immature haploid sperm cell is called a spermatocyte all material for the growth and development of new organism is stored in ovum germ cells to eggs
cytoplasm: storehouse for proteins and mitochondria. sperm must travel through the cumulus, zona pellucida and finally the cell membrane. Fusing begins in the zona pellucida, where proteins fuse and cause a acrosomal reaction Emergency Contraceptives
are they effective?
are they ethical? 1% of women know about emergency contraceptives, yet 2-3% have had an abortion Polyspermy describes a scenario where more than one sperm fertilizes an egg.
results in death of embryo Fusion of sperm and egg keeps the egg alive, and releases calcium ions that initiate protein synthesis and DNA replication so cleavage can take place. From sperm:
haploid genome From egg:
haploid genome Harvested eggs and sperm injected into woman’s oviduct
Fertilization takes place naturally
Used if infertility is from cervical or immunological factors If male has low viable sperm count
Single sperm injected into cytoplasm of an egg first transfer in 1983 Sperm can be fresh or frozen but oocytes cannot be frozen
Embryos incubated in chemical to prevent ice crystals from destroying embryo
Embryos can be frozen for years
Better chance of survival if frozen at zygote stage not cleavage or blastocyst stages
Implantation rate is about ten percent Is it ethically right to throw away extra embryos that result from an IVF procedure? Is IVF safe? -Hormone treatments can cause problems with hypertension and mood swings
-When eggs are harvested, minor hemorrhaging occurs in eight percent of women; rarely, it is serious
-Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: combination of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain from increased fluid in abdomen and chest
-Causes enlarged ovaries
-Response to oocyte-maturing hormones can lead to serious damage
-In rare cases, sperm samples were mixed up
-Ten times as many multiple births Great Britain has strict laws regulating ART clinics
While in the United States ART research and treatment is not funded or regulated
(belief government should not be invovled in such matters) Who benefits from ART? Should states have ability to limit ART to married heterosexual couples? If kept, who has right over frozen embryos?
after death? In U.S. frozen eggs are considered property Currently it is unknown if even a single baby born as a result of IVF will have more health issues than a “normally” conceived baby “separates physical act of marriage from act of procreation” Do people have a “right” to have a genetically related child? biologicial urge or the marketing of fertility clinics? If it's a right to have a child by IVF, is it then subsequently a right not to have a child by abortion? Islamic view on IVF In vitro fertilization is permissible as long as the semen and ovum are from a husband and wife who are legally married and the fertilization takes place during their marriage, not after divorce or the death of the husband. Taking a step back:
How is an egg produced? Ovulation Hormone level etc 1876 Oscar Hertwig & Herman Fol proved sperm entry into egg, and then the end product from the two cells nuceli With the advancements in Preimplantatioin, cloning, and stem cells, many people argue whether or not is is ethical to have the ability to select the sex of our children. If the embryo is healthy, should parents have the ability to select if they have a boy or girl? In my opinion, I believe that, under these conditions, parents should not have the ability to decide what sex their baby should be. It is not the way it is supposed to be. It is supposed to be a natural process and if you start conducting what gender you want your baby to have, you will not want to stop. Next you would want your baby to have brown eyes and a blonde hair. Therefore, I believe parents should not be able to select the sex of their children. If there are extra embryos from an IVF procedure should their disposal be considered in the same way as abortions? What happens if an embryo is thrown out by mistake, should the couple be entitled to the benefits of winning a wrongful death lawsuit? Wouldn't that mean that the embryo is considered a human being and ultimately the same as having an abortion? One major controversy with abortion is that it is "going against the natural order of things" - many religious groups believe that if you have been entrusted with a life, you should not have the right to end it on your own free will. Abortion has been around for much longer than assisted reproductive technologies have. These same religious groups who appose abortion ahve a different view on ART, and do not arbitrarily believe that it is a sin. However, technically, ART is going against that same natural order; if a couple was meant to have a child, then shouldn't that child either be born naturally or be acquired through adoption? Do you think if a woman has a right to create a life through ART, then she also has a right to destroy a life through abortion? If the woman has the right to choose what she wants in one situation, shouldn't that right carry through to the other situation? If a woman decides to have an abortion after learning that her baby has a genetic disease, is that any better or worse than using ART to screen the embryos for diseases before they are implanted in her uterus and only implanting the healthy ones?