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The House of Anjou (1154-1216)

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Sanja Ignjatovic

on 4 November 2014

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Transcript of The House of Anjou (1154-1216)

- Together with his younger brother John
conspires with King Philip II of France
against his father and takes the throne.

-
An absentee king
: spends most of the decade he rules over the 'realms' in wars leaving the affairs to
Hubert Walter

The House of Anjou (1154-1216)
Stephen (1135-1154)
- William the Conqueror's grandson usurping the throne of Henry I's heirs (inciting a long and bloody quarrel with Matilda and the future king of England, Henry II)



Stephen's allowing Henry II to take the throne by the right of the Treaty of Westminster links the ruling Norman line and the Anjou house in France (Philip II) by royal marriage
The Background
-
The youngest
of Henry II's legitimate children and his
favorite

(selfish, malicious and back-stabbing)

- John takes the throne after his brother's death by
murdering a 12-year-old boy
(a more valid pretender to the throne)

- A
greedy
ruler, continued the
tax practices
of Ethelred and was
excommunicated
from the Church, which
suspended the services for six years
- a blow to the national sense of identity which was religious to the core.
John (1199-1216)
The Lackland / Softsword
Richard I (1189-1199)
The Lionheart
- Finds the country in
feudal misrule
, initiates
the pacification of nobility and gradual stabilization of the society

- Marries
Eleanor of Aquitaine
(enormous dowry) and fathers
eight children
; rules an empire by then, but
keeps wife in prison
Henry II (1154-1189)
The extent of the Angevin Empire around 1172
Solid yellow shows Angevin possessions, checked yellow Angevin hegemony
The Empire
- The
Roman Catholic Church
wanted to gain
supremacy
over the
Christian Orthodox Church
(parted ways in
1054
)

- The Crusades
began in 1095 and ended in 1365
, and
Richard I
was
the only Angevin to take the Cross
, with some success in 1190

-
A religious duty
to persecute heathens and heretics, but also acquire wealth in the process

- A romanticized embodiment of the chivalrous Christian knight


The Crusades - The Holy War
-
The battle of Bouvines
, John loses
the duchy of Normandy
to
King Philip II of France
, which results in
the collapse
of most of the Angevin Empire

- The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign leads to the sealing of
the Magna Carta
, a document sometimes considered to be
an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom.
John the Lackland
- The '
criminous clerks
' (the clergy and secular crimes, as well as personal disagreements between the two)

- Archbishop Thomas a Becket
achieves
sainthood
,

and
Canterbury
becomes
a holy place
(a destination for pilgrims)

Henry II had to
publicly repent at Becket's grave
for the statement he had previously given foolishly (
'Who will rid me of this turbulent priest?'
)
The Becket Controversy
- Richard I:
an educated man
, tutored by excellent scholars and
could speak Latin and write poetry in French
:)

-
Refused to marry the French King's daughter
supposedly because he suspected her to be a former mistress of his father (
married a virgin Berengaria
, but left
no heirs
to the throne)

- Killed in France
The Chivalrous Christian Knight
- Compared to Richard, John was not a successful soldier, he was illiterate and he was
constantly betraying his barons
- a treacherous and fickle man

- The Great Charter of 1215, a cornerstone of political freedom, it limited the rights of the King and allowed the barons more independence (marks the beginning of the collapse of feudalism by undermining the strong links between the feudal lords and the vassals)
John the Softsword and Magna Carta
(The Angevins)
True feudalism - social unrest and instability
The Collapse of Feudalism
Henry II's
Primogeniture Law
A new system
according to which
property owned by the father is passed only to the eldest son.

This left
multitudes of people destitute
and in pursuit of new crafts, trade, etc.

Social mobility was intensified.
The Rising Class of Mercenaries
(Related to the legend of Robin Hood)

A
new warrior class emerged
out of
necessity
both on the side of people with no other prospects, and also on the side of landowners and feudal lords who needed to recruit in order
to defend against the King.
The Great Charter of 1215
Weakened the links between the feudal lords and their vassals, weakened the links in a very rigidly organized hierarchy, leaving space for new classes to appear.

Gave the lower classes freedom to venture out in the world and explore what is beyond their masters' estates.
The Signing of the Magna Carta
The new concept of freedom and the seed of social mobility
The Holy Wars and the Loot
Scientific discoveries, advances and development in astronomy, mathematics and chemistry
The Coming of the Friars and the Growth of Universities
Theology and philosophy
become popular, new methods of
observation and experimentation
emerge

Universities and the Church
become more closely related - the best way to enroll into a university was
to become a friar
The Three Remarkable Events
The Basis for the Common Law and Constitution?

Civil rights and freedoms?

Education?
The Three Remarkable Events
THANK YOU!
Full transcript