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GCSE Edexcel 1.1.5: Your personal health and wellbeing
Transcript of GCSE Edexcel 1.1.5: Your personal health and wellbeing
1.2.1 Physical Activity and your Healthy Body and Mind
Exercise + Diet + Work + Rest = Happiness and Wellbeing
Three basic types of bodies:
The link between exercise, diet, work and rest
Different Body Types
Edexcel suggests that by the end of these topics you should:
understand the link between diet, exercise, work and rest
be able to explain the importance of a balanced diet
understand how the timing of food intake before performing needs to be considered
describe the different body types (somatotypes) and the typical sports with which they are associated
explain optimum weight and how it varies, and the meaning of a number of terms related to weight, including anorexia and obesity
Know about the different categories of drugs and be able to explain the impact of drugs on well being and performance
describe how to prevent injury and reduce risk
Balance between the two
'The ability to meet the demands of the environment'
'a form of physical activity which maintains or improves health and/or physical fitness'
'the normal food we eat'
'Special diets' could include:
Control body composition
moral reasons (e.g. vegetarian)
Allergy's (e.g. gluten allergy)
Religious reasons (e.g. Halal, Kosher)
Calories in = Calories out
Essential provider of our energy supply
just about calories and energy , it is about providing the body with all of the nutrients it needs to function as effectively as possible!
Task: Balanced diet is made up of seven factors can you name them?
Macro nutrients + Micro nutrients
Complex carbohydrates (starch)
should provide around 50% of daily intake.
These are good sources of energy. The body can easily store energy from carbohydrates for rapid use by the muscles, so they are particularly important for athletes.
Name the seven factors of a balanced diet?
Do you need help?
Also known as sugars. Naturally they are found in fruit and vegetables. When refined they are found in multitude of foods including cakes, sweets, chocolate
Carbohydrates are stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, which is quickly converted into glucose and used to provide energy.
Quick question time:
Ask your partner two questions about the information you have just covered. Test them. What can they remember?
Should we get our energy from Complex or Simple Carbohydrates?
Are they good or bad?
Daily intake should be around 30% of diet
Fats are also used for energy, but only when stores of carbohydrate run low.
Fat provides very slowly released energy.
Weight loss as a result of physical activity is achieved by.....(2 marks)
1st mark for reference to 'working more/harder than you normally would do'
2nd mark for reference to 'using more calories than taken in'
•Proteins are used to help us grow and repair tissues
•Proteins are found in animal products such as meat, fish, milk and eggs
•They are also found in beans and lentils
•Proteins are made from amino acids
•Amino acids can be either essential, meaning we can't make them in the body so you must eat them in your diet or non-essential - meaning your body can make them
•Proteins should make up at least 15% of your daily dietary intake
How does protein benefit the athlete/performer?
Most important for sports people to have a high protein diet!
Proteins are especially important for sports people who need to build up large, powerful muscles as they are used to repair muscles and soft tissue.
Protein allows us to grow and repair muscle
Proteins are used to generate energy only when the body has exhausted its stores of carbohydrates and fats.
Saturated fats (bad fats - avoid)
Excessive amounts of fat are found in saturated animal fats and trans-fatty acids. These types of fat raise cholesterol levels and increase your risk of many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, stroke and certain cancers.
Saturated fats are solid at room temperature and are found mainly in the following animal and dairy products:
•lard Eggs (yolks)
•full fat milk
•suet and dripping
•full fat yoghurt
Unsaturated (Good fats)
Unsaturated fats are generally liquid at room temperature.
•They come from vegetable sources and are also found in oily fish and in soft margarines labelled 'high in polyunsaturates'.
•Unsaturated fats contain essential fatty acids that cannot be manufactured by the body. This means you need to get them from food.
Good sources of unsaturated fats include:
•avocados (a quarter of avocado contains 5g of unsaturated fat)
•unsalted nuts (cashew, brazil, pecan, walnut)
•seeds (pumpkin, sunflower, sesame).
•Oily fish (salmon, sardines, trout, tuna) is a good source of protein.
Plant protein contains many amino acids, but no single source contains all of the essential amino acids. This type of protein is found in:
•Legumes (peas, green beans)
•vegetable protein foods, such as Quorn or veggie mince.
Animal proteins contain all the essential amino acids. This type of protein is found in:
Sources of Protein include:
Without any support from your peers:
In your book create four new sub headings for the remaining parts of a balanced diet
Calcium is vital to health, especially during growth in childhood and adolescence.
Important in the formation of bones and teeth, helps to make bones strong.
Bones reach their peak at around 35 years of age, after which a gradual decrease takes place
Regular calcium intake reduces the likelihood of osteoporosis
Iron is essential to the blood because of its links with haemoglobin and its effect on the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood and the formation of red blood cells.
Lack of iron can lead to anaemia.
Found in lots of food but iron from meat is most easily absorbed
Vitamin A Needed for growth and helps with vision. Found in vegetables, eggs and liver!
Vitamin B1 is needed to release carbohydrate, and is found in whole grain nuts and meat
Is good for your skin and helps body tissue to form properly and hold together.
If you don't have it you develop a nasty disease called scurvy.
Found in fruit and veg - especially citrus fruits
Needed for strong bones. Helps prevent bone softening disease (like osteoporosis)
Found in milk, fish, eggs.
Can be produced by body in skin when in sunlight.
Vitamin E is found in vegetable oil, wholemeal bread and cereals, and is needed for growth and development
Vitamins are essential to health. Among other things, vitamins are necessary for:
red blood cell formation
healthy bones and teeth
Vitamins come in two groups; water soluble and fat soluble
There are two types: soluble and insoluble
Soluble fibre helps to reduce blood cholesterol levels, found in oats, fruits and vegetables.
Insoluble fibre is a bulking agent for food and aids the function of the digestive system helping to prevent constipation, found in wholegrain foods e.g. cereal (Cheerios).
If the body does not have enough fibre it struggles to get rid of the waste products from the digestive system leading to a number of diseases.
Used by body to keep organs and systems working properly.
It is lost in your breath, sweat, urine and faeces!
You need to drink lots to replace the water your body looses or uses. If you don't you become dehydrated and your body doesn't work as well as it could. Water is essential to temperature control of the body.
Your body is around 60% water
It is the main component of most cells and is used to transport nutrients, waste, and hormones around the body.
Also controls the distribution of electrolytes (body salts). During exercise the body sweats out electrolytes these can be replaced naturally by a balanced diet
Carbo-loading for optimum performance
Performance in any sport or activity can be affected by body type or physique
You need to view somatotypes as a continuum not a fixed identity.
Some people will have different features from each somatotype.
Certain body types are more suited to certain sports.
Taking athletics as an example.
than high jumpers who tend to be ectomorphic mesomorph
Throwers who are more typically mesomorphic endomorphs tend to be a different shape
Can be personal or sport specific.
What factors affect Optimum weight?
pertaining to anorexia - a prolonged eating disorder due to the loss of appetite
Weighing less than is normal, healthy or required
having weight in excess of normal (not harmful unless accompanied by overfatness)
having body fat in excess of normal
a term used to describe people who are very overfat
Performance-enhancing and Recreational Drugs
All drugs have side effects. A major side effect can be they are addictive.
Most drugs have physical side effects, which can range from high blood pressure to insomnia
drugs that mimic the male sex hormone testosterone and promote bone and muscle growth
drugs that can be used to reduce pain
drugs that have an effect on the central nervous system, such as increased mental and/or physical alertness
drugs that are used to control the heart rate and have a calming and relaxing effect.
drugs that elevate the rate of urine production
drugs that cause other hormones to be produced
Socially Acceptable Drugs
Socially unacceptable drugs
damages the cardiovascular system
restricts the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood and the blood vessels
causes high blood pressure
therefore has a negative effect on aerobic performance
nicotine in drugs is a stimulant which raises awareness
Banned in sports in which it may have a calming effect such as?
Causes damage to the liver (Cirrhosis)
Causes increased risk of dehydration due to increased urine production
Also banned in sports were it could increase risks such as?
Risk assessment and preventing injuries
Warming up/Cooling down
Checking equipment and facilities
Who's responsibility is it?
This means that the competition is fair to all competitors
Factors to consider:
Mixed or single sex
Playing to the rules of the competition
'We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence therefore, is not an act but a habit' - Aristotle