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Potential Earthquake Hazards and its Effects

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by

Jullia Morente

on 24 November 2016

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Transcript of Potential Earthquake Hazards and its Effects

Earthquake Hazard
Possible risks or danger in times of an on-going earthquake or those that happen after
Ground Shaking
The first main earthquake hazard (danger) is the effect of ground shaking. Buildings can be damaged by the shaking itself or by the ground beneath them settling to a different level than it was before the earthquake
Fire
The fourth main earthquake hazard is fire. These fires can be started by
broken gas lines and power lines, or tipped over wood or coal stoves.
Flooding
The third main hazard is
flooding
. This is defined as a great flowing or overflowing of water, especially over land not usually submerged.
Potential Earthquake Hazards and its Effects
Jullia Morente, 11 - Demosthenes
Effects of Ground Shaking
Liquefaction
is the mixing of sand or soil and groundwater during the shaking of a moderate or strong earthquake.
When the water and soil are mixed, the ground becomes very soft and acts similar to quicksand. If liquefaction occurs under a building, it may start to lean, tip over, or sink several feet.
The ground shaking may also cause landslides, mudslides, and avalanches on hills or mountains, all of which can damage buildings and hurt people.
Ground Displacement
The second main earthquake hazard is ground displacement
(ground movement)
along a fault.
Effects of Ground Displacement
If a structure (a building, road, etc.) is built across a fault, the
ground displacement
during an earthquake could seriously damage or rip apart that structure.
Effects of flooding
An earthquake can rupture (break) dams or levees along a river.
The water from the river or the reservoir would then flood the area
, damaging buildings and maybe sweeping away or drowning people.
Effects of Fire
For example, after the Great San Francisco Earthquake
in 1906,

the city burned for three days
.
Most of the city
was destroyed and
250,000
people were

left homeless.
• Stay calm! If you're indoors, stay inside. If you're outside, stay outside.
• If you're indoors, stand against a wall near the center of the building, stand in a doorway, or crawl under heavy furniture (a desk or table). Stay away from windows and outside doors.
• If you're outdoors, stay in the open away from power lines or anything that might fall. Stay away from buildings.
• Don't use matches, candles, or any flame. Broken gas lines and fire don't mix.
• If you're in a car, stop the car and stay inside the car until the earthquake stops.
• Don't use elevators

What to Do During an Earthquake
What to Do After an Earthquake
• Check yourself and others for injuries. Provide first aid for anyone who needs it.
• Check water, gas, and electric lines for damage. If any are damaged, shut off the valves. Check for the smell of gas. If you smell it, open all the windows and doors, leave immediately, and report it to the authorities.
• Turn on the radio.
• Stay out of damaged buildings.
• Be careful around broken glass and debris. Wear boots or sturdy shoes to keep from cutting your feet.
• Stay away from beaches. Tsunamis sometimes hit after the ground has stopped shaking.
• Stay away from damaged areas.
• If you're at school or work, follow the emergency plan or the instructions of the person in charge.
• Expect aftershocks.

Prepare.
Remember.

Stay Calm.

Be aware.
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