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Transcript of Psycholinguistics
It is the study of the mental processes involved in the comprehension, production, and acquisition of language.
It also studies how word meaning, sentence meaning, and discourse meaning are computed and represented in the mind
Representatives of Psycholinguistics
Related fields and interdisciplinary science.
Schools of thoughts
B.F Skinner's Verbal Behaviour (1957) applied a functional analysis approach to analyze language behaviour in terms of their natural occurrence in response to environmental circumstances and the effects they have on human interactions.
Noam Chomsky's innateness or nativist theory proposes that children have an inborn or innate faculty for language acquisition that is biologically determined.
Jean Piaget's four stages of cognitive development for children included the development of language. He explained that children do not think like adults and so before they can begin to develop language they must first actively construct their own understanding of the world through their interactions with their environment.
Social Interactionist Theory
Vygotsky's social interaction theory incorporates nurture arguments in that children can be influenced by their environment as well as the language input children receive from their care-givers. The child is a little linguist analyzing language from randomly encountered adult utterances
The usage-based theory of language suggests that children initially build up their language through very concrete constructions based around individual words or frames on the basis of the speech they hear and use. Basically this means that children learn language from their language experiences and a language structure emerges from language use.
OT suggests that the observed forms of language arise from the interaction between conflicting constraints and like other models of linguistics, contain an input and an output and a relation between the two.
Native Language Magnet Model
According to Kuhl and colleagues (2005), to acquire a language, infants have to discover which phonetic distinctions will be utilized in the language of their culture and do so by discriminating among virtually all the phonetic units of the world's languages.
Psycholinguistics and Education
There are essentially two schools of thought as to how children acquire or learn language. The first one states that all language must be learned by the child. The second view states that the abstract system of language cannot be learned, but that humans possess an innate language faculty, or an access to what has been called universal grammar.
One question in the realm of language comprehension is how people understand sentences as they read (also known as sentence processing). Experimental research has spawned a number of theories about the architecture and mechanisms of sentence comprehension.
It describes all of the stages between having a concept, and translating that concept into linguistic form. In computational linguistics/natural language processing and artificial intelligence, the term natural language generation (NLG) is more common, and those models may or may not be psychologically motivated.
Second Language Acquisition
According to Krashen there are two independent systems of second language performance: 'the acquired system' and 'the learned system'. The 'acquired system' or 'acquisition' is the product of a subconscious process very similar to the process children undergo when they acquire their first language. It requires meaningful interaction in the target language - natural communication - in which speakers are concentrated not in the form of their utterances, but in the communicative act.
Phonetics and phonology:
It studies speech sounds and Psycholinguistics studies the brain processes and understands these sounds.
It studies word structures, and the relation between related words and the formation of them based on rules.
: It studies of patterns, and how words are combined together to form sentences.
deals with the meaning of words and sentences.
is concerned with the role of context in the interpretation of meaning.
Languages are complex combinations which is perhaps one of the reasons why there is not a single explanatory theory of language. The goal of language acquisition research is to describe how a child becomes competent to produce and understand language, select the proper processing strategies and achieve language skills. However, there are a set of theories of language acquisition that have been created but most of these theories do not agree on the role that both nature and nurture play in language acquisition. The theories, however, have one thing in common and that is the fact that they all believe that language acquisition is the key aspect that distinguishes humans from other organisms and by understanding how different aspects of language are acquired we can better understand the main vehicle by which we communicate.
Social Development Theory
Stages of Acquisition of L1
Begining of fluency
2-3 years old
is a time frame during which environmental exposure is needed to stimulate an innate trait
Baby talk, Motherese
It is the early stage of a child`s life this is usually done through motherese or ``baby talk`` which may allow children to ``bootstrap`` their progress in language acquisition
Basically the care-giver (father, mother, granny) is providing comprehensible contexts in which the child can acquire language
Krashen's L2 Acquisition Theory
The Acquisition-Learning hypothesis.
the Monitor hypothesis.
the Input hypothesis.
the Natural Order hypothesis.
and the Affective Filter hypothesis.
Schools of Thought
The study of word recognition and reading
examines the processes involved in the extraction of orthographic, morphological, phonological, and semantic information from patterns in printed text.
studies infants' and children's ability to learn language, usually with experimental/quantitative methods (as opposed to naturalistic observations-Jean Piaget's research on the development of children).
Chomsky proposes that children have an inborn or innate faculty for language acquisition that is biologically determined
According to the behaviourist theory, language learning is a process of habit formation that involves a period of trial and error where the child tries and fails to use correct language until it succeeds
Questions and Answers
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