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Transcript of US Imperialism
-Business groups from the U.S. soon staged a rebellion against Queen Lili'uokalani, the last monarch of Hawaii, in order to set up their own state government - later declared illegal by our own federal government.
-On August 12th, 1898, Congress declared Hawaii a territory - and it became America's 50th state in August of 1959.
States of America
In 1898 the U.S. Congress declared war against Spain - one of only five times it has ever formally declared war in American history.
*After declaring war in 1898 the war was a quick and easy one to win, as America's military was much more powerful than Spain's.
Theodore Roosevelt became a war hero at the Battle of San Juan Hill with his band of soldiers carrying out a non-stop a charge to capture a Spanish fort.
The worst of the war came from a disease called "yellow fever" - over 70% of soldiers contracted the deadly disease, which comes from mosquitoes!
America goes back on its word...
*After the war Congress passed the Platt Amendment, stating that the US could intervene in Cuba whenever it saw fit.
-Like Cuba, the Philippines had been ruled by Spain and believed they would become independent after the US won the Spanish-American War.
*After the war, the US bought the Philippines from Spain in the Treaty of Paris for $20 million.
-Filipinos were very upset by this and soon declared war on America!
A man Emilio Aguinaldo led a rebellion
against American rule.
-The native Filipinos began to use "guerrilla" tactics to fight off American soldiers.
Guerrilla warfare: when one side uses unconventional tactics, including surprise attacks and sabotaging communication or supply lines.
-We discussed this in the American Civil War!
To combat this style of fighting, Americans began to force Filipinos to live in designated zones or work camps: similar to concentration camps in World War II.
*20,000 Filipino rebels and 4,000 American troops also died in direct military fighting.
-When the fighting ended in 1902, the Philippines was given a government similar to that of Puerto Rico: an official territory under the U.S. government.
Native Filipinos had already declared their independence from Spain on June 12, 1898.
*After almost 50 years as a territory, the United States finally granted the Philippines their full independence on July 4th, 1946.
-The U.S. waited to so long to do this because the Philippines proved to be a great place to fight Japan from in WWII.
How the Panama Canal Works
-There had been a need to connect the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean for a very long time, but now that countries on either side were trading more goods than ever it became apparent something needed to be done.
Building the canal proved to be very tough on American workers.
Building the Canal
*1. "Manifest Destiny" - a belief that the US was divinely destined to expand its influence.
-Now that America had expanded from coast to coast, some felt we were meant to expand around the world!
America was also inspired to become imperialistic by:
Why Did Europeans Colonize Africa?:
*2. Increased wealth ($) from the industrial revolution.
*3. A desire to show off our military.
*4. Wanting to compete with European countries, like Britain.
-In the early 20th century (1900s),
European countries went
into Africa and claimed as
much land as they could - making new colonies.
*Europeans colonized Africa to obtain more natural resources such as: gold, diamonds,
oil, spices, and ivory/skins - and to appear powerful.
49th State: Alaska
50th State: Hawaii
*The US watched Europe become stronger by colonizing Africa, and starting think about doing the same thing...
Early Alaskan History:
-Home to Native Americans for thousands of years due to the Bering Land Bridge - the icy walkway that allowed humans to cross from Asia to North and South America!
-Eventually taken by neighboring Russia when good animal furs were discovered.
*William H. Seward, America's Secretary of State, purchased Alaska in 1867 from Russia for $7.2 million.
*This was called "Seward's Folly" because many thought of Alaska as a giant winter wasteland.
Alaska became an official US territory in 1912 (the same year Arizona became the 48th state), but did not become the 49th state until January of 1959.
Early Hawaiian History:
-The Hawaiian islands were first settled hundreds of years ago by Polynesian sailors from southeast Asia crossing the Pacific Ocean by boat.
*A British sailor named James Cook arrived in Hawaii in 1778, and named the islands the "Sandwich Islands" after the man who had paid for his trip - the Earl of Sandwich.
(Fun fact: the Earl of Sandwich used to order a snack in England, pieces of meat held between two pieces of bread, which became known as the modern sandwich!)
-Cook was killed by the native Hawaiians after taking their local king captive, but eventually more Europeans arrived and took the islands over.
A Cook, and a Snack
Learning Goal: I will be able to understand the goals, benefits and detriments of American Imperialism.
Think about what the cartoon above is trying to describe. Do you think the artist is a fan of America? Why or why not?
*American settlers quickly discovered "FOG" (furs, oil and gold) - and realized Alaska was very valuable.
The Good Friday earthquake, 1964:
Exxon Valdez Oil Spill, 1989:
(Second Largest Earthquake Ever Recorded)
(One of the worst environmental disasters)
Illegal Takeover and Statehood
Pearl Harbor Attack, 1941:
-Had local kingdoms on each island!
Begin Your Notes With:
Why did the US become involved with Cuba through the Spanish American War?
Cuba is an island 100 miles south of Florida, but the US had never had interest in it, until the late 1800s.
*Cuba had been ruled by Spain since the 1500s, but Cubans had started protesting against the Spanish for their independence.
The US took the opportunity and offered to help the Cubans kick out the Spanish, with a promise that we would not annex them (outlined in the "Teller Amendment").
A Spark to Ignite a War
The US sent a battle ship, the USS Maine, to sit in Cuba's Havana harbor to watch over the Spanish while Cubans prepared to fight.
*On February 15th, 1898 the USS Maine exploded in the middle of the night with no explanation - killing 258 American sailors.
As sad as this event was, it was exactly what the US was waiting for - a reason to fight!
"Remember the Maine!"
Two newspaper reporters in America, Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst began to print exaggerated news stories blaming the Spanish for the explosion - with a rallying cry "Remember the Maine!"
This exaggerated style of news was called "yellow journalism" due to a comic strip, The Yellow Kid, in Hearst's newspaper.
Hearst was once quoted as saying to another journalist, "If you furnish the pictures, I will furnish the war."
Roosevelt's troop of men
were called the "Rough Riders" due to being made up of cowboys, ranchers and outlaws who all loved horses.
Yellow Journalism to Yellow Fever
The Rough Riders
A Hero is Born
An Easy War
Essentially, the Platt amendment said Cuba could stay its own country, but the US could make decisions about its trade and military.
The Platt Amendment
The Treaty of Paris:
After the war, the US and Spain met in Paris, France and negotiated terms of surrender.
*After losing the war, Spain gave the US:
America was now a player on the world stage, but some felt we were beginning to signs of becoming very greedy!
Major outcomes of the Spanish American War:
How/Why did the US get involved with Japan, and how did Japan respond?
How/why did the US get involved with China?
What were some major outcomes of the Philippine-American War?
-The main island of Japan (Honshu) has been occupied by humans for thousands of years, but its people had largely kept to themselves.
-The few times Japan had traded/communicated with others - brilliant Japanese poems, artwork and books were shared around the world.
-Just before Americans arrived, Japan had been made up of warring kingdoms (complete with fighting samurai warriors) that had been reunited under a series of emperors and their military commanders (shoguns).
*On July 3rd of 1853, the United States sent a captain of the Navy named Commodore Matthew Perry to Japan in order to force them to trade with us and have a monopoly of their goods.
-The Japanese could not fight America militarily, so they gave in to Perry's orders and began trading with the US.
*Suddenly, European countries swooped in and started forcing Japan to trade with them as well!
A World Power:
-Because Japan is an island it has limited resources, but it had always done well enough on its own.
-As soon as Japan started trading with the rest of the world, the Japanese people became dependent on other goods - and soon wanted to compete with other countries.
-In the late 1800s/early 1900s Japan took over the Korean peninsula and Taiwan. It was soon on its way to becoming a major world power.
*By the end of the Philippine-American War 200,000 Filipinos died in work camps from disease, starvation, and military attacks.
A set of islands in the southern Pacific ocean.
-China has one of the oldest and most successful civilizations on earth.
-Had many sets of dynasties (kingdoms), each with their own cultural and military accomplishments.
-Invented many of the world's greatest tools, and had major scientific advancements.
-Like Japan, China kept to itself for the most part, but that soon changed as America and European countries became more and more imperialistic.
Opening the Door:
*By the turn of the twentieth century the US and many European countries had "spheres of influence" - parts of the world they had direct influence/control over.
*In 1899 the US Secretary of State John Hay sent the "Open Door Note" to many European countries saying that China would be forced "open its doors" to trade, but that no single country should have monopoly of China's goods.
-After becoming involved with Japan, America and many of these countries all became interested in trading with China, wanting to expand their sphere of influence and get more goods.
Crushing a Rebellion:
*In response to the Open Door Policy, a group of Chinese nationalists, called "Boxers" because of how fiercely they would fight, staged an uprising to protest outsiders entering China.
*A combined army of eight countries - the United States, Britain, Germany, France, Italy, Russia, India and Japan - was quickly sent into China and crushed the Boxer Rebellion.
-China now had no choice but continue to trade with these countries - the world had become more connected than ever before.
When Done With Notes:
French to US:
How and why did the US build the Panama Canal?
The original construction of the Panama Canal was carried out by France, but they soon went bankrupt (ran out of money).
*The US realized building a canal between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans was a perfect opportunity to control worldwide trade, and expand our sphere of influence to Central America.
President Theodore Roosevelt soon became very passionate about the project.
Over 10,000 ships a year use the canal!
Ships pay a toll to use the canal, and it takes about 6-8 hours to get across.
Each lock is about 100 feet wide, and there are 3 going up and 3 going down.
Old shipping routes around South America and Africa, which were very dangerous!
*The US wanted to expand on the Monroe Doctrine, controlling this side of the world and keeping Europe out of it.
*Roosevelt soon passed the Roosevelt Corollary, saying the US had the right to intervene in Latin American countries whenever it felt necessary.
The canal was planned to use both natural waterways and artificial ones.
Floods, muddy soil and the presence of disease carried by mosquitoes all made workers miserable.
*The Panama Canal opened in 1914 after almost twenty-five years of construction and luckily was an immediate success!
President Teddy Roosevelt sitting on a construction crane.
The canal is made up of a series of waterways called "locks" than can be filled or drained to move ships up and down as they move through it across Panama.
During our age of Imperialism, do you think the US acted more as a world leader or a bully?
The US eventually gave full control to Panama in the late 1990s.
"Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick." - Teddy Roosevelt
What is Imperialism?
*Imperialism is a term for when a strong country takes control of, or influences, a weaker country.
-During the early 1900s (the same time as the Progressive Era), America become more "imperialistic" - wanting to control or influence other countries.
What Were the Four Reasons for America Becoming Imperialistic?:
Which European countries had the most land in Africa?
A Short Lived Celebration: