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Transcript of US Imperialism
Business groups from the U.S. soon staged a rebellion against Queen Lili'uokalani, the last monarch of Hawaii, in order to set up their own state government - later declared illegal by our own federal government.
*On August 12th, 1898, Congress declared Hawaii a territory - and it became America's 50th state in August of 1959.
Two Territories Added!
Now that America had 50 official territories/states, we started looking for even more land, resources and glory.
In 1898 Congress declared war against Spain - one of only five times it has ever formally declared war in American history.
*After declaring war in 1898 the war was a quick and easy one, as the America's military was far more powerful than the Spanish's.
Theodore Roosevelt became a war hero at the Battle of San Juan Hill with his band of soldiers carrying out a non-stop a charge to capture a Spanish fort.
The worst of the war came from a disease called "yellow fever" - over 70% of soldiers contracted the deadly disease, which comes from mosquitos!
America goes back on its word...
*After the war Congress passed the Platt Amendment, stating that the US could intervene in Cuba whenever it saw fit.
After the Spanish-American War, the
US annexed Puerto Rico as a territory
They saw that San Juan was the perfect location to set up a naval base and control the Caribbean
Puerto Rico's status within the United States has been debated ever since the Spanish-American War. It has been considered for statehood, independence, and (its current status) a commonwealth.
The US military occupied Puerto Rico for about 2 years after the War
Congress passed in 1900
Set up civil government
President of US could appoint PR's governor & members of the upper house of its legislature
Puerto Ricans could elect members of the lower house
*Like Cuba, the Philippines had been ruled by Spain and believed they would become independent after the US won the Spanish American War.
*After the war, the US bought the Philippines from Spain in the Treaty of Paris (for $20 million) - Filipinos were very upset by this and soon declared war on America!
A man Emilio Aguinaldo led a rebellion
against American rule.
The native Filipinos began to use guerrilla tactics to fight off American soldiers.
Guerrilla warfare: when one side uses unconventional tactics, including surprise raids and sabotaging communication or supply lines
-we discussed this in the Civil War!
To combat this style of fighting, Americans began to force Filipinos to live in designated zones or work camps: similar to concentration camps in World War II.
*By the end of the Philippine-American War 200,000 Filipinos died in work camps from disease, starvation, and military attacks- including the burning of their villages by US soldiers.
20,000 Filipino rebels and 4,000 American troops also died in direct military fighting.
When the fighting ended in 1902, the Philippines was given a government similar to that of Puerto Rico as a territory under the U.S. government.
The native Filipinos had already declared their independence from Spain on June 12, 1898
*After almost 50 years as a territory, the United States finally granted the Philippines independence on July 4th, 1946.
How the Panama Canal Works
There had been a need to connect the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean for a very long time, but now that countries on either side were trading more goods than ever it became apparent something needed to be done.
Building the canal proved to be very tough on American workers.
Building the Canal
U.S. Imperialism: 1898-1914
"Second Manifest Destiny" - now that America had expanded from coast to coast, some felt we were meant to expand around the world!
America was inspired by:
European Colonization of Africa:
*Increased wealth from Industrialization.
*A desire to show off our military might.
*Competition with European countries, like Britain, who had taken over land from all over the globe.
In the early 20th century,
European countries raced
into Africa and claimed as
much land as they could.
- wanted natural resources
such as: gold, diamonds,
oil, spices and ivory/skins
from rare animals.
First Stop: Alaska
Second Stop: Hawaii
Question #4: Who/what was America inspired by to become imperialistic during the early 20th century?
The US began to also want resources from foreign places, and to show off our military power, in order to keep up!
Early Alaskan History:
-Home to Native Americans for thousands of years due to the Bering Land Bridge - the icy walkway that allowed humans to cross from Asia to North and South America!
-Eventually taken by neighboring Russia when good animal furs were discovered.
*William H. Seward, America's Secretary of State, purchased Alaska in 1867 from Russia for $7.2 million.
This was called "Seward's Folly" (folly is a word for a mistake) or "Seward's Icebox" because many thought of Alaska as a giant winter wasteland.
*Alaska became an official US territory in 1912 (the same year Arizona became the 48th state), but did not become the 49th state until January of 1959.
*American settlers were drawn to Alaska by "FOG" (furs, oil and gold) - and still are to this day.
Early Hawaiian History:
-The Hawaiian islands were first settled hundreds of years ago by Polynesian sailors from southeast Asia crossing the Pacific Ocean by boat.
-A British sailor named James Cook arrived in Hawaii in 1778, and named the islands the "Sandwich Islands" after the man who had paid for his trip - the Earl of Sandwich.
(Fun fact: the Earl of Sandwich used to order a snack in England, pieces of meat held between two pieces of bread, which became known as the modern sandwich!)
-Cook was killed by the native Hawaiians after taking their local king captive, but eventually more Europeans arrived and took the islands over.
Question #5: When/why did America purchase Alaska and later have it become a state?
Question #6: When/why did America make Hawaii a state?
A Cook, and a Snack
Learning Goal: I will be able to understand why the U.S. became imperialistic at the the turn of the twentieth century.
Level 4, #2: Should the US have gotten as involved as we did around in the world in the early 1900s? Why or why not?
The Good Friday earthquake, 1964:
Exxon Valdez Oil Spill, 1989:
(Second Largest Earthquake Ever Recorded)
(One of the worst environmental disasters)
Illegal Takeover and Statehood
Pearl Harbor Attack, 1941:
-Had local kingdoms on each island!
(Also write at least 3 facts about Hawaii's culture.)
(Also write at least three facts about Alaska's culture.)
Begin Your Notes With:
Question #7: Why did the US become involved with Cuba through the Spanish American War?
Cuba is an island 100 miles south of Florida, but the US had never had interest in it, until the late 1800s.
*Cuba had been ruled by Spain since the 1500s, but Cubans had started protesting against them and wanted their independence.
The US took the opportunity and offered to help the Cubans kick out the Spanish, with a promise that we would not annex them (outlined in the "Teller Amendment").
A Spark to Ignite a War
*The US sent a battle ship, the USS Maine, to sit in Cuba's Havana harbor to watch over the Spanish while Cubans prepared to fight.
*On February 15th, 1898 the USS Maine exploded in the middle of the night with no explanation - killing 258 American sailors.
As sad as this event was, it was exactly what the US was waiting for - a reason to fight!
"Remember the Maine!"
*Two newspaper reporters in America, Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst began to print exaggerated news stories blaming the Spanish for the explosion - with a rallying cry "Remember the Maine!"
This exaggerated style of news was called "yellow journalism" due to a comic strip, The Yellow Kid, in Hearst's newspaper.
Hearst was once quoted as saying to another journalist, "If you furnish the pictures, I will furnish the war."
Roosevelt's troop of men
were called the "Rough Riders" due to being made up of cowboys, ranchers and outlaws who all loved horses.
Yellow Journalism to Yellow Fever
The Rough Riders
A Hero is Born
An Easy War
Essentially, the Platt amendment said Cuba could stay its own country, but the US could make decisions about its trade and military.
The Platt Amendment
The Treaty of Paris:
After the war, the US and Spain met in Paris, France and negotiated terms of surrender.
*Spain would give the US:
Discuss with a partner: do you think the US had a right to pass the Platt Amendment after the Spanish American War? Should we have gone back on our word after helping Cuba gain their independence?
-America was now a player on the world stage, but some felt we were beginning to signs of becoming very greedy.
Question #8: What were major outcomes of the Spanish American War?
What really happened to the Maine?!
-You and your partner will each take a document (A or B), and have two minutes to read it.
-After, you will trade with each other and have two more minutes to read your next article (A or B).
-Then, you will have one minute to give your opinion to each other about which article you believe is more reliable, and why.
Be prepared to cite evidence to
defend your argument!
Question #10: How/Why did the US get involved with Japan, and how did Japan respond?
Question #11: How/why did the US get involved with China?
Question #9: How did the Philippines react after the Spanish American War? What were some major outcomes of the Philippine American War?
-The main island of Japan (Honshu) has been occupied by humans for thousands of years, but its people had largely kept to themselves.
-The few times Japan had traded/communicated with others - brilliant Japanese poems, artwork and books were shared around the world.
-Just before Americans arrived, Japan had been made up of warring kingdoms (complete with fighting samurai warriors) that had been reunited under a series of emperors and their military commanders (shoguns).
*On July 3rd of 1853, the United States sent a captain of the Navy named Commodore Matthew Perry to Japan in order to force them to trade with us and have a monopoly of their goods.
-The Japanese could not fight America militarily, so they gave in to Perry's orders and began trading with the US.
*Suddenly, European countries swooped in and started forcing Japan to trade with them as well!
A World Power
Because Japan is an island it has limited resources, but it had always done well enough on its own.
*As soon as Japan started trading with the rest of the world, the Japanese people became dependent on other goods - and soon wanted to compete with these other countries.
In the late 1800s/early 1900s Japan took over the Korean peninsula and Taiwan. It was soon on its way to becoming a major world power.
Discuss with a partner: do you think the United States should have kept The Philippines against their will and forced Japan to trade against their will? Were their any positive outcomes of either situation? If so, Were these outcomes worth it?
Readings/links to explore:
A set of islands in the southern Pacific ocean.
China has one of the oldest and most successful civilizations on earth.
Had many sets of dynasties (kingdoms), each with their own cultural and military accomplishments.
Invented many of the world's greatest tools, and had major scientific advancements.
*Like Japan, China kept to itself for the most part, but that soon changed as America and European countries became more and more imperialistic.
Opening the Door
*By the turn of the twentieth century the US and many European countries had "spheres of influence" - parts of the world they had direct influence/control over.
*In 1899 the US Secretary of State John Hay sent the "Open Door Note" to many European countries saying that China would be forced "open its doors" to trade with them, but that no single country should have monopoly of China's goods.
After becoming involved with Japan, America and many of these countries all became interested in trading with China, wanting to expand their sphere of influence and get more goods.
Crushing a Rebellion
*In response to the Open Door Policy, a group of Chinese nationalists, called "Boxers" because of how fiercely they would fight, staged an uprising to protest outsiders entering China.
*A combined army of eight countries - the United States, Britain, Germany, France, Italy, Russia, India and Japan - was quickly sent into China and crushed the Boxer Rebellion.
China now had no choice but continue to trade with these countries - the world had become more connected than ever before.
When Done for the Day:
French to US
Question #12: How and why did the US build the Panama Canal?
The original construction of the Panama Canal was carried out by France, but they soon went bankrupt (ran out of money).
*The US realized building a canal between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans was a perfect opportunity to control worldwide trade, and expand our sphere of influence to Central America.
President Theodore Roosevelt soon became very passionate about the project.
Over 10,000 ships a year use the canal!
Ships pay a toll to use the canal, and it takes about 6-8 hours to get across.
Each lock is about 100 feet wide, and there are 3 going up and 3 going down.
Old shipping routes around South America and Africa, which were very dangerous!
*The US wanted to expand on the Monroe Doctrine, controlling this side of the world and keeping Europe out of it.
*Roosevelt soon passed the Roosevelt Corollary, saying the US had the right to intervene in Latin American countries whenever it felt necessary.
The canal was planned to use both natural waterways and artificial ones.
Floods, muddy soil and the presence of disease carried by mosquitoes all made workers miserable.
*The Panama Canal opened in 1914 after almost twenty-five years of construction and luckily was an immediate success!
President Teddy Roosevelt sitting on a construction crane.
The canal is made up of a series of waterways called "locks" than can be filled or drained to move ships up and down as they move through it across Panama.
Discuss with a partner: Your Level 4 question! Do you think the US had any right to become as imperialistic as it did?
The US eventually gave full control to Panama in the late 1990s.
"Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick." - Teddy Roosevelt