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Remember every day (of World War I)
Transcript of Remember every day (of World War I)
Haber, a German chemist, developed the use of chemical weapons and smoothed the way for the industrial production of poison gas. The 22nd of April 1915, the day when the Germans used poison gas for the first time in the Second Battle, is undoubtedly connected with his person. In his opinion, poison gas was a human weapon that should be used in war. Despite the inconceivable sorrow his inventions had brought, he received the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1918.
Remember every day
French political oppo-
nents work together
In several involved countries a political phenomena arose. The opposed political parties were unified for the higher aim to stand up for their nation. France proclaimed the
, the German Emperor knew "no parties anymore, only Germans" unified in the
. In Portugal it was named S
The Hague Convention on Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land
The taxis of Marne
September 6/7, 1914 - The miracle of Marne
As the German Army charged into France without hindrance they were stopped by the enthusiastic French Army west of Paris. 150 French taxis bringing soldiers to the battlefield continuously created an icon of French patriotism.
July 26, 1914 - Thea Sternheim
„We are standing at the edge of a Serbian-Austrian or even an international war! These are bad prospects. Stocks are declining 30- 40 %. Today, thousands are ruined.” (Diary entry - translated)
WWI was a promoter
June 1915- Women's work
As men were standing at the front, the women had to replace the missing workers. Even though most women had already been working before, now new possibilities arose in the production of arms, management and health system.
In France, approximately half a million women worked in the armaments' industry in 1918.
August 1916- The Nurse
Here in the long wide ward I stand
Pausing a little breathless space,
Touching a restless fevered hand
Murmuring comfort's commonplace
Long enough pause to feel the cold
Fingers of fear about my heart;
Just for a moment, uncontrolled,
All the pent tears of pity start
While here I strive, as best I may
Strangers' long hours of pain to ease,
Dumbly I question -
Lies my beloved even as these?
Miss G.M. Mitchell (August 30, 1916)
November 1917- American mobilization
Soon after entering the war the American
civil society was as integrated in war as the soldiers beyond the ocean.
A fifteen-year-old said:
"Our president has asked schoolboys to get all the education they can and do their war work after school hours. A request from the president has become a command now, so we have to obey."
In 1915, German young girls defended the necessity of their country's participation in the World War. Their words show an alarming extent of patriotism and enthusiasm regarding the war.
Frieda B., 20-years-old:
"Freedom, independence, power, dignity and self-determination: this is what our enemies want to take from us. Therefore, this terrible struggle of nations is a true and holy war"
German Food Rationing Card
January 1915- Food Rationing
From 1915 on, German authorities introduced the food rationing. Since there were blocked food imports and missing field workers, a nutrition crisis rose fast and a starving period started especially for women and children. During the war, an estimated 750,000 German civilians died of hunger and diseases.
Mobilization of volunteers
October 1914- Mobilizing UK's Youth
When entering the war UK's army lacked of prepared soldiers due to the fact that a compulsory military service didn't exist. Through a broad mobilization campaign in the first two months of war about 750,000 workers and young men entered the army as volunteers. Later, in 1916, the recruitment by force was established nonetheless.
April 1915- War in Classroom
Lawrence of Arabia
Young Turk Revolution
- the aim was to modernize the state of the Ottoman Empire
The Balkan Wars
1912 - 1913
- four Balkan states defeated the Ottoman Empire in the first war
- The Ottoman Empire lost nearly all of its holdings in Europe
April 22, 1915 - Fritz Haber
- neutrality of medical personnel;
- care for wounded combatants;
- right of soldiers and sailors to surrender as prisoners of war
July 1917- Lawrence of Arabia
Lawrence of Arabia (T. E. Lawrence) was a British Army officer who was involved in the Arab Revolt. Lawrence fought alongside Arab guerrilla troops and helped to capture Aqaba. His acts became the plots of several movies that made him one of few WWI legends.
August 1914- unified home front
chief of the general staff
September 14, 1914 - Helmuth von Moltke
He ordered the withdrawal of the German troops, later known as the “Victory of the Marne”. Shortly after, he suffered a nervous breakdown and was discharged.
1859-1941 - emperor
November 10, 1918 - Wilhelm II
After Germany’s defeat, he fled into exile in the Netherlands.
Provisional gas masks
August 1914- First Usage of Gas as a weapon
Due to the usage of about 30 different poisonous gases, soldiers had to cover their faces with urine-soaked clothes. Bells were used to warn of a gas attack. By the end of the war the soldiers in the trenches were given gas masks. The French were the first to use gas as a weapon.
June 28, 1914
(1861-1917), doctor and suffragist
January 1917 - Elsie Inglis
She is regarded as one of the greatest heroines of World War I, because she founded the “Scottish Women’s Hospitals” (SWH), which worked during the war in France, Belgium, Serbia, Greece and Russia. She also opened “The Hospice”. The first unit of doctors arrived in January 1917 in Kragujevac (Serbia).
July - August 1914
Declarations of War
July 1914 - Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg
He postponed the mailing of the emperor’s telegram to the Austrians stating that there was no longer a reason for war since Serbia was willing to cooperate for too long. Hence, Austria declared war to Serbia.
- July 28: Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia;
- August 1: Germany declared war on Russia;
- August 3: Germany declared war on France;
- August 4: British Empire declared war on Germany;
- August 6: Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia;
- August 23: Japan declared war on Germany
September 5, 1914
Battle of the Marne
October 31, 1914
Siege of Tsingtao (Japan)
- the war became global
The Second Battle
Poisonous gas was used for the first time by the Germans.
Combined British and French operations at Gallipoli
British liner Lusitania was destroyed by the German Navy
Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary
February 21, 1916
Siege of Verdun -
MEANING OF THE FRAMES' COLOR
July 1, 1916
The Battle of Somme
Myths & Miscellaneous
Germany issued first peace note which is rejected by the Allies
He publishes “Gedanken im Krieg” (Thoughts in War), stating: “War! It was cleansing, relief that we felt!”
(1871-1950), book writer
He published an article on Émile Zola in a pacifistic newspaper in Switzerland, counterattacking his brother Thomas.
November 1915 - Heinrich Mann
In a sermon before 3000 listeners he consecrates the German people to a people of redemption, having the mission to lead the world out of chaos.
April 15, 1917 - Bruno Doehring
feminist and pacifist
She attended a pacifistic conference in Den Haag asking for disarmament and arbitral settlement of international disputes.
May 1915 - Anita Augspurg
After his younger brother had died in the war he told his mother:
“The front is the sole place where it is humane to be at.”
November 1915 - Max Weber
He was willing to accept war loans making it possible for Germany to participate in the war. This will later be looked at as collapse of his political career.
August 4, 1914 - Friedrich Ebert
Foundation of the “Spartakusgruppe” together with Karl Liebknecht, who will later join the “Unabhängige Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands” (USPD).
March 19, 1916 - Rosa Luxemburg
He strengthened the German deep-sea fleet, making it possible to battle the British at Skagerrak.
May 31, 1916 - Alfred von Tirpitz
(1870-1964), colonialist in Eastern Africa
After receiving the message that war had broken out in Europe, he sent a telegram to his troops: “Form up immediately, destroy English border troops”!
August 5, 1914 - Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck
As a supporter of radical conduct of war, he is officially banned on talking.
1916 - Graf Ferdinand von Zeppelin
The Revolution breaks out in Russia
March 8, 1917
United States of America declared war on Germany
April 6, 1917
British and Indian forces captured Baghdad
March 11, 1917
January 27, 1915 - Fritz Niebergall
In a letter addressed to his parents he wrote:
“We notice that it is the emperor’s birthday because our coffee is sweet for the first time.”
November 1914 - Thomas Mann
The 'October Revolution'
November 6/7, 1917
June 21, 1917 - Maria Bochkareva
She formed the 1st women’s battalion and is also called the “Russian Jeanne d’Arc”.
December 9, 1917
April 27, 1915 - Jean-Corentin Carré
As a 15-year-old boy, he volunteered to fight in war. He created himself a new identity, stating that he came from Rumigny in Ardennes. The French could not counter his statement, because this area was occupied by Germans at that time. After the war, he became a role model for the youth.
November 1918 - Emmeline Pankhurst
She was a suffragette and was able to enforce the rights for women to vote with non-violent resistance. Women from the age of 30 were allowed to vote and women older than 21 could become Members of Parliament.
The 14 Points of Woodrow Wilson
January 8, 1918
October 12, 1915 - Edith Cavell
She was executed on October 12, 1915. She saved soldiers from both sides and helped 200 allied soldiers to escape from Belgium which was occupied at that time. She was found guilty for treason and was sentenced to death by the German authorities. On account of this, the Germans were put under international pressure to grant amnesty and were condemned worldwide.
(1865 - 1915), British nurse
a basis for the peace
Russia and Germany sign the Treaty of
March 3, 1918
October 1914 - Albert Einstein
He signed the “Appeal to the Europeans”, that was initiated by Georg Friedrich Nicolai. It proposed the creating of a European peace order.
Hindenburg arrived in East Prussia and met his new chief of staff, Erich Ludendorff for the first time. Later he played an important role in the Weimar Republic.
August 24, 1914 - Paul von Hindenburg
Dix, a German soldier and dadaist painter, fought on the front for the first time.
September 1915 - Otto Dix
Bulgaria signed the armistice
September 30, 1918
End of March 1915 - Erich Klein
„In the military hospital Eberswalde, […] I woke up and could not believe my eyes. Around my bed, all my loved ones stood. I could not speak anymore, I was so happy.” (Diary entry)
(biographical data unknown)
Ballin was the boss of the HAPAG shipping company and a diplomat with excellent connections to other countries. In July 1914 he was sent to London to negotiate with British responsibles about how a war can be avoided. He was almost successful, but unfortunately his efforts were useless in the end.
July 1914 - Albert Ballin
Elsbeth Schragmüller was a German spy during the war. As a spy she was only known as “Mademoiselle Docteur”. She was the leader of a spy department to bug France.
1915 - Elsbeth Schragmüller
Mühsam was a German author and pacifist who always criticized violence and war in general. A letter from August 1914 shows that even he was enthusiastic about the war after the outbreak.
August 1914 - Erich Mühsam
The expressionist artist participated as a German soldier voluntarily. At the beginning, he was very enthusiastic about fighting in war, but little by little his attitude towards war changed. In October 1915, he described the war as inhuman hunting of innocent people. In March 1916, he was deadly wounded.
October 1915 - Franz Marc
Clara Immerwahr was the wife of Fritz Haber. She completely opposed the ideas of her husband and condemned chemical weapons as terrible and inhuman. On 1 May 1915, she committed suicide, most probably because of her husband research.
April 24, 1916 - Elisabeth Kreiter
“Easter without pleasure, without coloured eggs and sweets.” (Diary Entry)
Paris Peace Conference
January 18, 1919
The Treaty of Versailles
June 28, 1919
Wilson declared the USA to be neutral on August 19th, 1914. But in the end the USA joined the war in 1917.
1856-1924, president of the USA
August 19, 1914 - Thomas Woodrow Wilson
Gavrilo Princip, who murdered Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie in Sarajevo, died succumbing to tuberculosis in Austrian captivity.
April 28, 1918 - Death of Gavrilo Princip
Annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Austria-Hungary announced the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, territories formally within the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire;
- Austro-Serbian relations became permanently stressed
November 3, 1914 - Georg Sally Cohn
Barbusse, a French writer and soldier published his novel “Le Feu” (The Fire) in December 1916. It was the first literary exposé focusing on the suffering of ordinary soldiers.
December 1916 - Henri Barbusse
October 1916 - Wilhelm Muelon
Muehlon was the director of Krupp - a steel company from the Ruhr. Krupp produced many weapons for the German Reich. He was not satisfied with the German politics in war and because of that he moved to Switzerland in October 1916. Later he published a book in which he criticized above all the German decisions in the July Crisis.
“On the first day we supplied more than 80 badly wounded people. Altogether 1.300 people.” (diary entry)
May 1, 1915 - Clara Immerwahr
December 1914 - The Color Books
Every country published its own government official dossier, which contained certain foreign policy developments. The French were the last to publish their Color Book in December 1914. Every country had a different cover color, for example:
Germany - white
Great Britain - blue
France - yellow
Russia - orange
The first German White Book was published in 1876
October 1916 - The Jewish Census
The Jewish census was a measure instituted by the German Military High command in October 1916 during the upheaval of World War I.
It was told that there were too few Jews that were fighting at the battlefield, but the Census showed otherwise. The results were not published though.
Poster defending that the Jews
were fighting alongside the Germans.
May 1917 - Image of the Virgin
The Virgin Mary appeared several times to a group of children.
She appeared for the first time before the war to warn them to pray. During the war she showed herself too and appeared a final time right before the war ended.
The image of the Virgin is an appearance of an angel.
June 28, 1914 - Gavrilo Princip
Gavrilo Princip was a Serbian nationalist and the assassin of the Austrian-Hungarian crown prince Franz Ferdinand and his wife. The assassination was the event which lead to the “July-Crisis” ending with the outbreak of the First World War. He was arrested only hours after the attack.
The notorious assassination of the crown prince and his wife
March 1915 - Aerial Warfare
In WWI airplanes and zeppelins were used to fly bomb attacks against London and Paris. Furthermore, balloons were used for recon missions. All in all, the aerial warfare had no big impact on the outcome of the war but the experience was used in WWII.
The first steps to aerial warfare
April 6, 1917 - William Sowden Sims
When the United States declared war on Germany, Sims, an admiral in the United States Navy, was already at sea on his way to Britain to act as liaison officer with the Royal Navy.
Benedict sent his seven-point peace plan to the Great Powers, but it was only treated seriously by Austria.
August 1, 1917 - Pope Benedict XV
Hari was a Dutch dancer who was travelling around the most famous cabaret clubs in Europe. In 1915 Elsbeth Schragmüller hired her at the German secret service. Hari was a very successful spy because of her seductive charms. On October 15, 1917 she was uncovered and killed after she was convicted by a French court.
October 15, 1917 - Mata Hari
WWI - No rules to be respected
- The Commander of the German 58 Brigade (Sixth Army), gr. Stenger, instructed his men not to take prisoners in Lorraine (the war laws were broken).
December 1916/January 1917 - The Turnip Winter
The population of Germany survived the cold winter season of 1916/1917, although the potato crops were ruined by the winter's frost, by living off turnips, which were usually used to feed the livestock. There was so very little to eat back at home, that even soldiers sent packages with food from the firing line.
"The Britians want to starve us? Don't make me laugh!"
The Spanish Flu was a pandemic that killed over 35 million people.
The effects of the pandemic were comparable with the Black Death in 1348.
The unusual feature of the deadly epidemic was that 20 - 40 year old people died from it, while children and elders survived.
The infected ones were brought to special clinics
January 1918 - The Spanish flu
Manfred von Richthofen - better known as the “Red Baron” - was a very successful pilot during WW1 with 80 counted victories.
He died on the 21st of April, 1918.
After his death he was buried by the Allies with honor and respect.
The red famous airplane of Richthofen
April 1918 - „Red Baron“
April 1915- Genocide on Armenians
The Armenian population in the Ottoman Empire had been oppressed and persecuted for a long time. In spring and summer 1915, the Ottoman government decided to send out 1.5 million Armenians into the desert. Only 77,000 survived this massacre.
Rudyard Kipling signed the British proclamation
October 1914- Appeal of the Intellectuals
In the first year of the war the intellectuals saw their patriotic duty in enforcing the national spirit. 54 British writers and public figures signed the proclamation named "Civilization", Russian, Portuguese and French intellectuals followed this example. In Germany 93 known personalities drew up the pamphlet "Aufruf an die Kulturwelt" to defend the German honor they saw endangered. Critical writers were accused to not support their nation.
Already during the war, the international community condemned the genocide as crime against humanity
Scheidemann proclaims the republic from the window of the Reichstag
November 11, 1918- German Republic
On November 11 the German Emperor resigned and left the country after general strikes and riots in the country. Several councils were established in the cities. Two men stepped up on the same day - Karl Liebknecht, leader of the Socialist Spartacus-Union proclaimed a Socialist Republic and Philip Scheidemann from the social democratic party a Democratic Republic.
A few weeks later the socialist leaders were murdered and the Democratic Republic was established.
An icon of Virgin Mary
The war was financed by war loans - the advertisements were based on patriotism
April 1918- War loans
Jewish people sentenced to forced labour
October 1916 - Anti-Semitism
WWI was also a time of anti-Semitism. In the German occupied zone of Ober Ost on Polish territory the Jewish population had to suffer extraordinarily. They were forced to labour and underwent a lot of mistreatment although the Jewish people first hoped to improve their situation with the Germans. Documents of this time show already a deep hatred of the German generals against the population.
April 1916- Easter Rising Ireland
Ireland was still a part of the UK, but the "home rule law" already passed the parliament, guaranteed more autonomy. A lot of Irish men fought for Britain in the war. On Easter Sunday, Irish separatists occupied several public administration buildings and proclaimed the independent Republic of Ireland. This rising was followed by months at the edge of a civil war and gained more and more support of the population. In 1919 Ireland gained independence while Northern Ireland stayed a part of the United Kingdom.
British troops reacting fast
Socialist depiction of the revolution
November 1917- Russian Revolution
In March 1917 the Tsar in Russia was forced to resign after several days of riots. In October the Bolsheviks under the leadership of Lenin took the power and started to install a soviet republic. They gained the support of the people by promising bread, land and peace to the poor and exhausted population. On the other hand, resistance was brutally suppressed. This revolution led to peace negotiations between Germany and Russia.
Gavrilo Princip, who murdered Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie in Sarajevo, died succumbing to tuberculosis in Austrian captivity.
 Hague Conventions 1899/1907
 Young Turk Revolution
 Petit Journal Annexation of B-H
 Balkan Wars
 Assassination of Franz Ferdinand
 Gavrilo Princip
 Thea Sternheim (picture and diary entry)
 Albert Ballin
 Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg
 The Onion
 Friedrich Ebert
 Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck (picture and telegram)
 Paul von Hindenburg
 Erich Mühsam
 Provisional gas masks
 French political opponents work together
 No rules to be respected
 Helmuth von Moltke
 Taxis of Marne
 Battle of the Marne
 Albert Einstein
 Rudyard Kipling signed the British proclamation
 Mobilization of volunteers in the UK
 Georg Sally Cohn (picture and diary entry)
 Siege of Tsingtao
 Thomas Mann
 The Color Books
 Elbeth Schragmüller
 Fritz Niebergall (picture and letter)
 German Food Rationing Card
 Aerial Warfare
 Erich Klein (picture and diary entry)
 Fritz Haber
 Jean-Corentin Carré
 Genocide on Armenians
 Second Battles of Ypres
 Viktoria-Gymnasium, Essen (picture and text by Frieda B.)
 Clara Immerwahr
 Anita Augspurg
 Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary
 Women's work
 Otto Dix
 Edith Cavell
 Franz Marc
 Heinrich Mann
 Max Weber (picture and quote)
 Graf Ferdinand von Zeppelin
 Siege of Verdun
 Rosa Luxemburg
 Elisabeth Kreiter (picture and diary entry)
 Easter Rising
 Alfred von Tirpitz
 Battle of the Somme
 The Nurse
 Jewish census
 Henri Barbusse
 German Peace Note
 Turnip Winter
 Elsie Inglis
 British and Indian forces capture Baghdad
 Revolutions breaks out in Russia
 William Sowden Sims
 Bruni Doehring
 USA declares war on Germany
 Image of the Virgin
 Maria Bochkareva
 Lawrence of Arabia
 Pope Benedict XV
 Mata Hari
 October Revolution
 I want you (picture and 15-year-old schoolboy)
 Russian revolution
 the Spanish flu
 Woodrow Wilson's 14 points
 Brest Litovsk
 Gavrilo Princip
 Red Baron
 War loans (3 pictures)
 Thomas Woodrow Wilson
 Bulgaria signs the armistice
 Wilhelm II
 Emmeline Pankhurst
 German republic
 Paris Peace Conference
 Treaty of Versailles
We would like to thank the Deutsches Historisches Museum and more specifically Oliver Schweinoch for the great guided tour that helped us to create this calendar.
Furthermore, we would like to thank the library of the Freie Universität Berlin and more specifically Petra Kende for the great possibilities she provided us with to research for and work on our project.
 picture: http://www.suedkurier.de/storage/pic/cms2skol/lokales/news/bodensee/ueberlingen2/kultur/245954_1_kir_sternheim_GIML6APB.1.jpg?version=1062130167 ;diary entry: in: ZEIT Spezial - Deutschlad 1914: Als der Krieg begann: Das Schicksalsjahr, erzählt in 25 Porträts, February 2014, p. 4
 picture: http://img.welt.de/img/history/crop101408264/3830712834-ci3x2l-w580-aoriginal-h386-l0/1918-1-BM-Bayern-Straubing.jpg; telegram: in: ZEIT Spezial - Deutschlad 1914: Als der Krieg begann: Das Schicksalsjahr, erzählt in 25 Porträts, February 2014, p. 19
 diary entry: Staas, Christian: Wenn die Granaten sausen, hört das Denken einfach auf. In: Zeit Geschichte. Der Erste Weltkrieg, 1/2014, p. 75. / picture: http://www.europeana1914-1918.eu/de/contributions/2164/attachments/28664?layout=0)
 letter: Staas, Christian: Wenn die Granaten sausen, hört das Denken einfach auf. In: Zeit Geschichte. Der Erste Weltkrieg, 1/2014, p. 78. / picture: http://www.europeana1914-1918.eu/de/contributions/415)
 diary entry: Staas, Christian: Wenn die Granaten sausen, hört das Denken einfach auf. In: Zeit Geschichte. Der Erste Weltkrieg, 1/2014, p. 79/80. / picture: http://www.europeana1914-1918.eu/de/contributions/4146/attachments/49244?layout=0)
 picture: http://www.viktoriaschule-essen.de/profil/geschichte.html / text
 picture: http://www.badw.de/bilder/kommissionen/35_weber.jpg; quote: in: ZEIT Spezial - Deutschlad 1914: Als der Krieg begann: Das Schicksalsjahr, erzählt in 25 Porträts, February 2014, p. 13
 diary entry: Staas, Christian: Wenn die Granaten sausen, hört das Denken einfach auf. In: Zeit Geschichte. Der Erste Weltkrieg, 1/2014, p. 85. / picture: http://www.europeana1914-1918.eu/en/contributions/4213)
 Rother, Rainer (Ed.). Der Erste Weltkrieg: 1914-1918: Ereignis und Erinnerung. Wolfratshausen: 2004, S.154. Print.
 picture: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:I_want_you.jpg#file / schoolboy text: http://www.forgottenbooks.org/readbook_text/School_Life_v1_1000087797/77
 http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/25901#sthash.FXRC2SO4.dpuf ; http://www.europeana1914-1918.eu/de/europeana/record/9200309/BibliographicResource_3000093756931_source ; http://www.europeana1914-1918.eu/de/contributions/2778
(until September 12, 1914)
(until November 7, 1914)
April 25, 1915
April 22, 1915 - May 24, 1915
May 7, 1915
May 24, 1915
(until December 18, 1916)
(until November 18, 1916)