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Historical Context

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Cassandra Velazquez

on 29 October 2013

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Transcript of Historical Context

Chronicle of a Death Foretold
Historical Context

Colombian Civil Wars
• General Petronio San Roman- Bayardo’s father and famous civil war general
o Characterized as a conservative hero and highly admired
o Influences town support in the civil wars
o Agree with honor but not murder
 Violence took a replacement on words
 But will not stop it

Miguel Reyes Palencia married Margarita Chica Salas. The following morning he realized that she wasn't a virgin and physically abused her and demanded to know who she gave her virginity to. After she refused he returned her to her family. Her mother begged for him to wait a week in order to prevent a scandal. After being threatened by her brother, Margarita finally confessed that it was Cayetano Gentile Chimento. Cayetano Gentile was once engaged to Margarita and best friends with Miguel Reyes.
He had went to watch Miguel and Margarita leave for their honeymoon, but no one was there. Cayetano ran into the author’s brother and sister, who invited Cayetano to breakfast in which he had declined.
Julieta, the mother of Cayetano Gentile, heard of the planned murder of her son. She saw a brother of Margarita run toward her house and did not open the door when she heard banging. She assumed wrong that it was the Maragarita brother, because it was her son Cayetano. While trying to flee from the angry brother , Cayetano was caught and stabbed 14 times.
Cayetano walked back to his house and said that he was innocent. The brothers turned themselves in and were placed in jail until they were acquitted. After, the Salas family left Sucre. Maragrita was too ashamed to leave her new house. Miguel Reyes married and had kids, while Margarita grew old and alone.

Real Event
• January 22, 1951
• Sucre, Colombia
"My mother was the only one who wouldn’t greet him"

“Where they spent three years awaiting trial because they couldn’t afford bail”

"We killed him openly," Pedro Vicario said, "but we're innocent." "Perhaps before God," said Father Amador.

Time Period (1950)
Mulatto Racism:
•“pleasurable mulatto girls”

• “Any man will be happy with them because they have been raised to suffer”.

"The Arabs compromised a community of peaceful immigrants who had settled at the beginning of the century in Caribbean towns, even in the poorest and most remote, and there they remained, selling colored cloth and bazaar trinkets."

"They were clannish, hard-working, and Catholic."

"The older ones continued speaking the rustic Arabic they had brought from their homeland, and they maintained it intact in the family down to the second generation, but those of the third, with the exception of Santiago Nasar, listened to their parents in Arabic and answered them in Spanish."

Characters – Real People
• Santiago Nasar – Cayetano Gentile
• Luisa Santiago – Julieta
• Bayardo San Roman – Miguel Reyes Palencia
• Angela Vicario – Margarita Chica Salas
• Pedro and Pablo Vicario – José and Víctor Chica

Miguel Reyes Palencia sued Gabriel García Marquez, believing that Bayardo San Roman was based on his life story. He demanded half the profit from book and declared co-author of novel. Court ruled that a lot of literature had been based on real events and that there’s no way Miguel Reyes could have written such a novel in any way close to how Marquez wrote it.
Patriarchy in 20th Century Colombia
• Patriarchal family structures were especially prominent in Colombia. Women were expected to bear children and run the household smoothly. Relations between men and women were especially dominated by tradition.
• Men were raised to be very protective towards those who depend on them- wives, mothers, children, or sisters. They were also mainly concerned with up keeping their honor.
• Trust and the dependence on family members was still especially strong. Relationship patterns were shown in compadrazgo, a structured form of kinship.
• Marriage was viewed as a way to move up in the society.
Farah, Douglas. "Crimesof War." Crimes of War – Colombia. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Oct. 2013.c

Salloum, Habeeb. "Arabs Making Their Mark in Latin America: Generations of Immigrants in Colombia, Venezuela and Mexico | Al Jadid Magazine." Arabs Making Their Mark in Latin America: Generations of Immigrants in Colombia, Venezuela and Mexico | Al Jadid Magazine. Al Jadid, 2000. Web. 28 Oct. 2013.

Phillips, Tom. "Nobel Author Gabriel García Márquez Wins 17-year Legal Fight over Murder Classic." The Guardian. The Guardian, n.d. Web. 26 Oct. 2013.

Wave of immigrants
o After the Great Depression during the 1930s, Colombia’s Syro- Lebanese immigration weakened.
o Due to La Violencia (the civil war) immigration took a pause between the 1940s to the 1960s.
o The late 19th century and the 1930s
 Most started out as drug dealers with little capital, and soon branched out to sell their wares in rural areas neglected by local commerce.
What they did
o Newcomers came to settle in important port towns and coastal trading centers
 Due to their good sense of business, they often made a fortune becoming whole-sale import-export traders, fabric and plantation owners
o The wealthy Syro-Lebanese community played a major part in the rise of the city of Barranquilla to become Colombia’s most important port in the first quarter of the 20th century.
 Natives respected the success since it improved the economy of certain regions.
o The Arabic success began to make the natives angry that were not prospering and losing business due to their efforts and presence.

o Due to their work-filled lives, the Arabic tongue was almost lost to the Colombian born generations.
o The church was very powerful and people had to fit into the narrow view of the Spanish-Catholic world of that time.
o In earlier times one had to be baptized to work and to become a Colombian.
 Muslims had to hide their identity.
Arab communities
o Majority live along the Caribbean coastline
 Barranquilla has the largest number of Arabs in the country.
o They are well respected by the other Colombians.
Cesar Cabot
Sam Carmenate
Jessica Faroy
Amanda Monteleone
Cassandra Velazquez
Time for some *** CHARADES!!!! <3 :)
Arab Migration
Civil War 1950s
• Known as La Violencia
• Opposed armed militias of the Liberal and Conservative parties against each other and nearly destroyed the country
• The violence never entirely ceased.
• It was of the Liberal party militia that formed the first and most prominent guerrilla movement, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), in the 1960s.
• It was in response to the rekindled guerrilla threat, first from the FARC and then from the National Liberation Army that the first paramilitary formations were set up as support units to the Colombian army.
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