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Austria-Hungary's Last War

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Stefan Wedrac

on 3 December 2018

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Transcript of Austria-Hungary's Last War

Austria-Hungary's Last War
Created by Stefan Wedrac, IES Vienna 2010
A Web of Alliances
1879/82
Italy
Germany
Austria-Hungary
"Triple Alliance"
France
United Kingdom
Russia
1904/07
"Triple Entente"
neutrality
Europe's Backyard? The Balkans
Issues:
Colonies
Fleets
Balkans
1870ies
Uprisings, Russian Interventions, Wars of Independence
1878: Conference of Berlin
Royal Family
Archduke
Franz Ferdinand
shot in Sarajevo June 28th, 1914
Archduke
Carl Franz Joseph
Emperor Franz Joseph I
1887-1922
1863-1914
1830-1916
Occupation of Bosnia in 1878
Russia as protector of South Slavs
Balkan Wars 1912/13
1912: Sr, Bu, Gre vs. Ottoman E.
1913: Rum, Sr, Ot, Gre vs. Bu
Home Front
1914: "War-Service-Law"
1914-1918 shortage of trains
Inflation 1914-1918: about 200%
1914-1918: "War-Time Socialism"
1917: "Tenant-Protection-Law"
1914-1917: waves of refugees
Chronology
1914..............................1915..............................1916..............................1917.............................1918.........................1919
Key Factors of WWI
Weapons:
Artillery
Machine Gun
Mass Warfare
Obsolete Tactical Ideas
"Total War"
Propaganda
June 28: Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Sarajevo
July 28: Austria-Hungary declares War on Serbia
1914: all plans fail
Summer: Offensive in Serbia fails
Fall: Russians conquer big parts of Galicia
Theatres:
East (Galicia)
South (Serbia)

1915: a new enemy
October: the Ottoman Empire enters the war
May: Offensive in the east (Tarnow-Grolice)
May 23: Italy enters the war against A-Hu
October: Ger & A-Hu offensive in Serbia, Bu joins the war on their side
1916: pressure
First half of the year: Italian offensives near Gorizia
June-August: Brusilov Offensive
August: Rum enters the war against A-Hu & Ger
November 21: Franz Joseph I dies, Karl follows
February: Bourgeois revolution in Russia
March-April: Lenin is brought to Russia through Germany
1917: a year of change
First half: "Sixtus-Affair"
Mid-1917: intense battles at the Isonzo, Russian offensive
October/November: "Red" Revolution in Russia
April: the US enter the war
new theatre: Italy
October: A-Hu & Ger Offensive in Italy
1918: decline
Winter 1918: "famine-revolts"
Mid-1918: Ger & A-Hu offensives fail
September: Bulgaria surrenders
March 1918: Peace with Russia, occupation of the Ucraine
October: Italian offensive, armistice, "Peoples Manifest"
November: Karl abdicates, Republic proclaimed in Austria
a footnote: Austro-Hungarian Navy
Georg Ludwig von Trapp's Submarine
French Battleship Leon Gambetta, sunk by von Trapp in April 1915
Ships of the "Danube-Fleet"
Austrian Dreadnoughts: Viribus-Unitis-Class
Austria-Hungary's Army
3 parts (austrian, hungarian, common)
mostly led by german officers
only a few units homogenous
war in the mountains
mountain "Col di Lana": italian mine blows up the summit on April 17, 1916
Emperor Charles I visits the frontline
wife Elisabeth: killed 1898
son Rudolph: suicide 1889
brother Maximilian: executed 1867
nephew
nephew
14 battleships (4 modern dreadnoughts)
23 cruisers and similar ships
26 torpedo gunboats (destroyer)
about 100 torpedo boats
14 submarines
from: "A Very Long Engagement" (2004) by Jean-Pierre jeunet
July-August: Declarations of War (Ger, GB, Fr, A-Hu, Ru)
Isonzo: 12 bloody battles 1915-1917

1894
1904
1907
1879
1882
1882
30.5 cm
mortar
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