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Transcript of 19th Amendment
Women's Suffrage "The right of citizens of the United States
to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation." What is the 19th Amendment? This amendment is stating that for all citizens of the United States, the right to vote will not be rejected or refused for anyone based on their sex. What does that mean? History of the Amendment For nearly 100 years, women were fighting for the right to vote. In the 1840s, there were some gatherings of women, discussing promoting equal rights for women. However, the real movement for women’s suffrage did not really begin until after the Civil War. Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, there were many court cases and movements which helped influence the ratification of the 19th amendment. What caused the Legislative Body to add it? Eventually, the Legislative Body added this Amendment. However it took many court cases, movements, and time for it to be official. They decided to add it when it was becoming more and more promoted. Court Case 1: Minor vs. Happersett Court Case 2: Susan B. Anthony. Court Case 3: Leser v. Garnett (1922)- Effect on Our Lives Today Thank you! Any Questions? The 19th Amendment has a huge effect on our lives today. It has given women an equal right to vote which has helped effect many president, senators, and representatives get elected. It has also furthered the fact that every citizen of the U.s. is given equal opportunity. Maryland citizens Cecilia Streett Waters and Mary D. Randolph applied and were granted registration as qualified voters. Group of people led by Oscar Leser had a petition to nullify their registration because the Constitution of Maryland limited the suffrage to men. The main question of the trail was whether the nineteenth amendment had become part of the federal Constitution. After much debate, it was decided that the nineteenth amendment was part of the federal Constitution and constitutionally established. National Women Suffrage Association Beginning in 1869, Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton formed the National Woman Suffrage Association. The primary goal was to achieve voting rights for women by a Congressional amendment to the Constitution. Another group formed in 1869 was the American Woman Suffrage Association. The primary goal was also to gain voting rights for women but through amendment to individual states constitutions.
The 19th amendment was ratified on August 18, 1920, when Tennessee became the 36th state to ratify the amendment, 42 years after Susan B. Anthony formally introduced the amendment. This Supreme Court Case featured a woman named Virginia Minor, a leader in Missouri's Women Suffragist Movement, versus Reese Happersett. On October 15th, 1872, Minor attempted to vote, but was refused by Happersett, the registrar.
Minor's Case: Under the 14th Amendment, women are equal citizens, implying that they have the right to vote. Also, that "provisions of the Missouri state constitution which allowed only men to vote were in violation of the United States Constitution"
Happersett's Case: '"Almost universal practice of all of the States ... from the adoption of the Constitution to the present time" was to restrict voting rights to men only'
The Supreme Court took Happersett's side. Work Cited:
November 18th, 1872: Susan B. Anthony is arrested for voting.
Susan's Case: The 14th Amendment - "All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."
Judge Henry Selden: Fined her 100$ after a long trial.