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Transcript of The Reformation
That the Roman church was founded by God alone.
That the Pope alone can depose or reinstate bishops.
That of the Pope alone all princes shall kiss the feet.
That it may be permitted to him to depose emperors.
That he may absolve subjects from their fealty to wicked men.
That a sentence passed by him may be retracted by no one; and that he himself, alone of all, may retract it.
That he himself may be judged by no one.
That the Roman church has never erred; nor will it err to all eternity, the Scripture bearing witness.
(Pope Gregory VII, 1075 CE)
What was the power and status of the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages?
Physical Power of Catholic Church
Access to Knowledge
Precursors to the Reformation
A mighty fortress is our God, a bulwark never failing;
Our helper He, amid the flood of mortal ills prevailing:
For still our ancient foe doth seek to work us woe;
His craft and power are great, and, armed with cruel hate,
On earth is not his equal.
Did we in our own strength confide, our striving would be losing;
Were not the right Man on our side, the Man of God’s own choosing:
Dost ask who that may be? Christ Jesus, it is He;
Lord Sabaoth, His Name, from age to age the same,
And He must win the battle.
And though this world, with devils filled, should threaten to undo us,
We will not fear, for God hath willed His truth to triumph through us:
The Prince of Darkness grim, we tremble not for him;
His rage we can endure, for lo, his doom is sure,
One little word shall fell him.
That word above all earthly powers, no thanks to them, abideth;
The Spirit and the gifts are ours through Him Who with us sideth:
Let goods and kindred go, this mortal life also;
The body they may kill: God’s truth abideth still,
His kingdom is forever.
"A Mighty Fortress Is Our God" by Martin Luther (c. 1528)
They placed on his head a paper crown for vilification….the paper crown was round almost eighteen inches high, and on it were shown three horrible devils about to seize a soul and to tear it among themselves with claws….
When so crowned he was then led from the said church; they were burning his books at that hour in the church cemetery.
Then having been divested of his clothing, he was tied to a stake with ropes, his hands tied behind his back. And when he was turned facing east, some of the bystanders said: " let him not to be tuned facing east, because he is a heretic; but turn him toward the west." So that was done.
They place two bound bundles of wood under his feet. When tied to that stake, he still had his shoes on and one shackle on his feet. Indeed, the said bundles of wood, interspersed with straw, were piled around his body so that they reached up to his chin. For the wood amounted to two wagon - or carloads.
When the wood of those bundles and ropes were consummated, the remains of the body still stood in those chains, hanging by the neck, so the executioners pulled the charred body along with the stake down to the ground and burned them further by adding wood from the third wagon to the fire. And walking around, they broke the bones with clubs so that they would be incinerated more quickly.
And finding the head, they broke it to pieces with the clubs and again threw it into the fire. And when they found his heart among the intestines, they sharpened a club like a spit, and, impaling it on its end, they took particular [care] to roast and consume it, piercing it with spears until finally the whole mass was turned into ashes.
And on the order of the said Clem and his marshal, the executioners threw the clothing into the fire along with the shoes, saying "So that the Czechs would not regard it as relics; we will pay you money for it." Which they did. So they loaded all the ashes in a cart and threw it into the river Rhine flowing nearby.
Peter from Mladonovice (1451)
Albert of Hohenzollern
Ninety-five Theses (October 31, 1517 )
Johannes Gutenberg's Printing Press (c. 1450)
6. The pope cannot remit any guilt, except by declaring that it has been remitted by God and by assenting to God’s remission…
21. Therefore those preachers of indulgences are in error who say that by the pope’s indulgences a man is freed from every penalty, and saved.
32. They will be condemned eternally, together with their teachers, who believe themselves sure of their salvation because they have letters of pardon.
36. Every truly repentant Christian has a right to full remission of penalty and guilt, even without letters of pardon.
Reaction of the Catholic Church?
Justification by faith alone
Authority of the Scriptures
The Pope and the Church were not infallible
Papal Bull of Excommunication (1520)
Diet of Worms (1521)
"I am bound by the Scriptures I have quoted and my conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and will not recant anything, since it is neither safe nor right to go against conscience. May God help me. Amen."
Frederick the Wise
Henry VIII (r. 1509- 1547)
Catherine of Aragon
Church of England (Anglican Church)
Impact of Religious Division
Netherlands (Dutch Reformed Church)
Changes in the Catholic Church
Henry VIII (1509-1547)
Edward VI (1547-1553)
Mary I (1553-1558)
Elizabeth I (1558-1603)
Treaty of Westphalia
Before the first man was created, God in his eternal counsel had determined what he willed to be done with the whole human race.
In the hidden counsel of God it was determined that Adam should fall from the unimpaired condition of his nature, and by his defection should involve all his posterity in sentence of eternal death.
Upon the same decree depends the distinction between elect and reprobate: as he adopted some for himself for salvation, he destined others for eternal ruin.
While the reprobate are the vessels of the just wrath of God, and the elect vessels of his compassion, the ground of the distinction is to be sought in the pure will of God alone, which is the supreme rule of justice.
And not to leave any occasion of trouble and difference among our Subjects, we have permitted and do permit to those of the Reformed Religion, to live and dwell in all the Cities and places of this our Kingdom and Countreys under our obedience, without being inquired after, vexed, molested, or compelled to do any thing in Religion, contrary to their Conscience, nor by reason of the same be searched after in houses or places where they live, they comporting themselves in other things as is contained in this our present Edict or Statute.
EDICT OF NANTES
Council of Trent (1545-1563)
Ignatius of Loyola (1491–1556)
Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
Protestant and Catholic
Religious Diversity and Diversity of Thought
German Wars of Religion
Peace of Augsburg (1555)
Cuius regio, eius religio
The World at 1500
As I know you will be rejoiced at the glorious success that our Lord has given me in my voyage, I write this to tell you how in thirty-three days I sailed to the Indies with the fleet that the illustrious King and Queen, our Sovereigns, gave me, where I discovered a great many islands, inhabited by numberless people; and of all I have taken possession for their Highnesses by proclamation and display of the Royal Standard without opposition….They have no iron, nor steel, nor weapons, nor are they fit for them…..The only arms they have are sticks of cane, cut when in seed, with a sharpened stick at the end, and they are afraid to use these. Often I have sent two or three men ashore to some town to converse with them, and the natives came out in great numbers, and as soon as they saw our men arrive, fled without a moment's delay although I protected them from all injury….they are a hopelessly timid people.
I had to win their love, and to induce them to become Christians, and to love and serve their Highnesses and the whole Castilian nation, and help to get for us things they have in abundance, which are necessary to us…….our Redeemer has given victory to our most illustrious King and Queen, and to their kingdoms rendered famous by this glorious event, at which all Christendom should rejoice, celebrating it with great festivities and solemn Thanksgivings to the Holy Trinity, with fervent prayers for the high distinction that will accrue to them from turning so many peoples to our holy faith; and also from the temporal benefits that not only Spain but all Christian nations will obtain.
First letter of Columbus on New World (1493)
What strikes you about this document? What does Columbus see as important?
Europe on the cusp of change
-Technology and Progress
-Religion and Reformation
Things we don't see
-New Political Thought
Introduction: What is Modern History?
Chapter One: The World at 1500
Chapter Two: The Reformation and Early Modern Politics
Chapter Three: The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment
Chapter Four: Political Revolutions
Chapter Five: The Industrial Revolution and Imperialism
Chapter Six: The Americas to 1914
Chapter Seven: Africa 1500-1914
Chapter Eight: The Middle East 1500-1914
Chapter Nine: India 1500-1914
Chapter Ten: China 1500-1914
Chapter Eleven: Japan 1500-1914
Chapter Twelve: World War One and the Interwar Period Chapter
Thirteen: World War Two and the Cold War
Chapter Fourteen: Decolonization and the Third World
Chapter Fifteen: Globalization
How the book and class are structured-
Albigensian Crusade (1209–29)
Alhambra Decree (Spain, 1492)
Infallibility of the Pope and Catholic Doctrine
Confession and Absolution
Temporal Punishments of Sin and Purgatory
Supererogation (Treasury of Merit)
John Wycliffe (d. 1384, England)
Jan Hus (d. 1415, Bohemia)
Europe on the cusp of change
What are some of the major differences in the World in 1500 vs. the World Today?
French Wars of Religion (1562–98)
St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
Henri of Navarre (Henri IV)
Edict of Nantes (1598)
Defenestration of Prague (1618)
Thirty Years' War (1618–1648)
The Catholic Church in the Middle Ages
Ending Religious Warfare
What do you think is the short-term result of religious division?
Investiture Controversy (c. 1075)