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Animal Cell Parts
Transcript of Animal Cell Parts
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
This is the brain of the cell. All the information needed to make everything in your body is found here. It is like an enormous instruction book. These instructions are never allowed to leave the nucleus, although they are copied and the specific parts are sent out to the ribosomes to produce certian proteins that instruct your body to behave in a specific way. The instructions come in the form of DNA.
The NUCLEUS is the part of a eukaryotic cell that directs cell activities and contains genetic information stored in DNA. This organelle is surrounded by a special nuclear membrane and is only found in eukaryotic cells.
The CYTOPLASM is the watery jelly-like substance where all of the organelles "float" around. The cytoplasm is found in both prokaryotic and eukarotyic cells.
The CELL MEMBRANE is a flexible covering that surrounds and protects the inside of a cell from the environment outside of a cell. It acts as a "gatekeeper", allowing only certain materials in and out of a cell. The cell membrane is found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM is where proteins are made.
The rough ER is "rough" because it is coated with ribosomes,
which actually do the dirty work and make the proteins. The RIBOSOMES go up and down the rough endoplasmic reticulum and picks up the parts needed to make each specific protein, similar to the way a cook will go up and down a grocery store aisle and pick up the ingrediants need to make a meal. Ribosomes can be found attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum or floating in the cytoplasm looking for "ingredients".
Although the rough endoplasmic reticulum is only found in eukaryotic cells, ribosomes are found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
All functions of the body (and of all cells) require energy. The MITOCHONDRIA is known as the "powerhouse" of the cell. This is where the energy is produced in the cell (in the form of ATP). The mitochondria is like an oil refinery plant that takes crude oil and converts it into a usable form of energy, like gasoline. This organelle is found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Cells that require a lot of energy (like muscular cells) have more mitochondria than cells that may not require as much energy (like bone cells).
The GOLGI BODY takes the protein made by the ribosomes, the fat made by the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and the carbohydrates made in the cytoplasm and packages them together to be sent out of the cell to other parts of the body where they are needed. This is like the Fedex store of the cell. It puts everything together and ships it out. The Golgi body is only found in eukaryotic cells.
Sometimes the cell will go for a time without any food or water. In times like that a vacuole comes in handy. VACUOLES store food, water, and waste material. Animal cells typically have many small vacuoles. A vacuole is like a food pantry - it stores food an water until we need it. Vacuoles are only found in eukaryotic cells.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
The SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM is "smooth" because it does not have any ribosomes attached to it, unlike the rough endoplasmic reticulum. This organelle has many jobs, but one of its main jobs is making fat molecules. This organelle is only found in eukaryotic cells.
The LYSOSOME breaks down materials no longer needed by the cell and sends the broken down material out of the cell, This is like the garbage company of the cell. The lysosome is only found in eukaryotic cells.