Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Unit 2: Matter and the Periodic Table

No description
by

Valerie Henderson

on 7 December 2016

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Unit 2: Matter and the Periodic Table

Unit 2: I Chemistry....Periodically
Lego Atoms!
Each group needs:
1 bag with
15 blue bricks
10 black bricks
7 yellow bricks
1 class copy "Classification of Matter"
Bohr Model:
(planetary)
Pg. 28 - Out: "Comparing Protons, Electrons and Neutrons
Unit 2 Warm-Ups
Please take out another piece of folder paper.
Unit 2 Table of Contents
Warm Up 2.2 "Mixtures"
Look at the examples of mixtures and/or compounds on the front table. Classify each (A, B, C) as a mixture (heterogenous or homogenous) or compound.
Path to the Periodic Table
Subatomic Particles
An atom has 3 different types of subatomic particles.
Please take out a piece of folder paper.
Unit 2 T.O.C.
Date
Title
Section
Warm-Ups Unit 2
Warm Up 2.1
"Classifying Types of Matter"
Date:
Write down a minimum of 3 things you know about atoms, molecules, compounds, and mixtures.
Please be prepared to share!
1) To make 8 atoms, find 8 blue lego pieces and place them, unconnected, in front of you.
Please draw them (as if they are the same size) in the first box on your paper.
atom
8 particles
Use your class copy to decide which square in model 1 on it contains the same type of matter as your lego model
A, B, or C?
A
Continue working with your group to complete lego models for 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
5)
How many different types of atoms are found in a molecule of TSq R
2
?
How many Sq atoms are found in a molecule of TSq R
2
3
2
6)
How many different types of atoms are found in the sample of SqR & TSq?
3
3
How many different types of molecules are found in the sample of SqR & TSq?
3
2
7) a. When two atoms are touching in model 1, what is holding the atoms together?
chemical bond
b. How is this represented in your lego models?
lego bricks stuck together
9) Can a particle be a single atom?
yes
10) Can a particle be a molecule?
(see 1 on model 1)
yes
(see 3 on model 1)
11) How many particles are in the drawing representing T &RSq & R in model 1?
8
12) What is your group's definition of the word particle as it is used in chemistry?
A particle is a single atom or group of atoms that are bonded together and function as a unit.
13) Compare the codes listed at the top of each drawing in model 1 with the shapes in that box.
a) What do the letters R, Sq, and T stand for?
R = round
Sq = square
T = triangle
or
atoms
b) What do the small numbers (subscripts) in the codes represent?
The number of that type of atom in a molecule
13 c) When atoms are touching how is that communicated in the code? Hint: how is the code different when two atoms are touching compared to when they aren't?
The letters are directly next to each other.
d) What is the common characteristic of the samples in which an ampersand (&) is used?
There is more than one type of molecule (or particle) present.
14) In model 1, there are 3 drawings that are labeled with the letters A, B, C. Write the codes to properly label these drawings.
A
B
C
T
Letters of Boxes
Code
SqR
3
R & Sq
2
When you have your arrangement for 15, please raise your hand and show the teacher.
16) Which are pure substances and which are mixtures?
Pure Substances
Mixtures
17) How are the codes (chemical formulas) for pure substances different from those for mixtures?
The mixtures have ampersands
18)
Elements
Compounds
20) How are the codes (chemical formulas) different for elements and compounds?
The codes for elements contain only 1 capital letter
21) Use what you have just learned about chemical formulas to identify each of the following as an element, compound, or mixture:
a. Br
2
b. NaHCO
3
c. C H O & H O
6
12
6
2
d. Cu & Zn
e. CO
2
f. Al
element
compound
mixture
mixture
compound
element
22. Explain the difference:
a. An atom and an element:
An atom is the actual particle of matter while an element is a collection of particles consisting of atoms that are all the same.
22 b)
A molecule and compound?
A molecule is a particle with 2 or more atoms joined by chemical bonds. It could be that the two atoms are the same in which case the molecule would belong to an element.
A compound is a collection of molecules where there are two or more types of atoms bonded together and all the molecules are the same.
23. Separation of matter. Chemical or physical?
Physical methods: evaporation, distillation, filtering
don't require chemical means of separation. No chemical bonds are broken.
Chemical methods of separation: decomposition, electrolysis, combustion (burning) are chemical means of separation. Chemical bonds are broken or formed during separation.
a. Is straining pasta from water a chemical or physical change?
b. Is using a fuel cell to separate water into Hydrogen and oxygen a physical or chemical change?
electrolysis
c. Which types of matter (mixtures/compounds/elements) could be separated by:
i. physical methods
ii. chemical methods
mixtures
compounds
Mixture or Compound? Demo
What is the difference between a homogenous mixture and a heterogenous mixture?
A mixture is the result of mechanical blending or mixing of a substance without creating chemical bonds or chemical changes.
Homogenous mixture
Heterogenous mixture
salt dissolved in water
only one phase present
more than one phase present
Which type of properties would be associated with mixtures? (chemical or physical?)
A. H O

B. Colored Legos

C. Kool Aid + H O
2
2
compound
heterogeneous mixture
homogeneous mixture
Now, you have 5 minutes to complete your classification of matter foldable.
It must be in color!
:)
Part 1: Your group has a set of cards labeled part 1.
Look carefully at the properties listed for each element.
Arrange the cards in a 2D grid in any way that makes sense.
You have been given only the elements that had been discovered at the time Mendeleev and Meyer were working on their tables.
After you have determined your arrangement, please answer the post-lab questions (1-5) with your group.
Path to the Periodic Table
Please read the introduction and Historical Context on the class copy.
Please read the purpose.
Please answer pre-sort questions 1-5.
(be prepared to share your answers)
Post-Sort Questions:
4. Are there any exceptions to these trends?
Did you put tellurium before iodine even though tellurium has a higher atomic mass?
Mendeleev made this switch in his original table.
Today, we know the elements properties are because of their atomic number not mass. Since protons hadn't been discovered in Mendeleev's time, he could not know this.
Instead, he thought the masses of tellurium and iodine had been measured incorrectly and eventually better measurements would be made to show tellurium was heavier than iodine. Mendeleev died still believing this would happen some day.
Are there any elements that deviate from the trend in atomic masses?
5. Are there any holes or gaps in your arrangement?
Maybe you have a gap in the groups containing aluminium and silicon.
What do you think these gaps mean? (What did they mean when Mendeleev saw them in the table he arranged?
The gaps represent elements that had not been discovered yet.
Some scientists were skeptical of Mendeleev's predictions because there wasn't any evidence from the lab of such elements actually existing.
Friedrich Beilstein (a colleague of Mendeleev) said:
"Mendeleev...has prophsised the existence of all sorts of new elements and believes that he needs only to conceive of them in order to have them immediately in the bag...He is in general an odd chap."
The evidence came in 1875. French chemist Paul-Emile Lecoq de Boisbaurdran discovered a new element he named gallium.
In 1886, a German chemist named Clemens Winkler discovered an element he called Germanium.
Part 2:
Please open the part 2 bag with the cards in it for part 2.
Please fit these cards into your table.
Gallium should fit in the group with boron and aluminum.
Germanium should fit in the group with carbon and silicon.
The discovery of these two elements brought a lot of attention to the periodic table and persuaded many skeptics to accept it. (Remember, in science, skepticsm is good!)
Part 3:
This part involves elememts that Mendeleev did not predict.
In the 1890s, many years after Meyer and Mendeleev first published their periodic tables, five new gases were isolated largely through the work of Scottish chemist Sir William Ramsay.
Please find the cards for part 3 in the bags labeled part 3.
Please fit these new elements into your table.
The elements you just added...
...belong in a group of their own.
Please answer extension Questions 1-4.
4. Mendeleev didn't predict the noble gases, why?
Mendeleev predicted the existence of gallium and germanium because the other members of their groups gave away these two.
Since none of the noble gases had been isolated before the 1890s, there weren't any clues that they existed.
This exercise simulated how Mendeleev arranged the elements known during his time into a table with peridoic properties...
Modern atomic mass information was used.
Transition elements weren't included because they are very difficult to fit into a periodic table. (Mendeleev tried to put them into the main groups of the periodic table)
He died before the discovery of quantum mechanics, he couldn't have known that the transition metals are characterized by having their outermost electrons in d-orbitals and belong in a separate place (d-block) of the modern periodic table.
This is why this activity ignores the discovery of scandium which is another element Mendeleev predicted based on a gap in his table and was later discovered.
1. An element is a substance made of only one kind of atom.
Answers to Pre-sort Questions
3. The atomic mass is the mass of an atom of a particular element. It's the total number of protons, electrons, and neutrons.
4. The atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
5. HCl
H O
2
H: 1 Cl: 1
H: 2 O: 1
Answers to post-sort questions:
1. There are 7 groups.
2.
Potential answers (individual group answer may vary)
atomic mass, compounds formed, properties listed
3. There is an increasing trend in atomic mass.
4. Iodine and tellerium break the trend in atomic masses but the other properties of iodine make it fit better with fluorine, chlorine, and bromine, while the properties of tellurium make it fit better with oxygen, sulfur, and selenium.
Meet your...
2. An element is made of only one kind of atom.
Please make a 3x venn diagram to compare & contrast electrons, protons and neutrons.
Compare and Contrast Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
Protons
Protons and Neutrons
Protons and Electrons
Protons, Neutrons, Electrons
Electrons and Neutrons
Neutrons
Electrons
positively charged
number of protons = atomic number
different number of protons = different element
in a neutral atom, number of protons = number of electrons
protons and neutrons have the same mass
1 amu
no charge
negatively charged
number of electrons
changes in a ion
subatomic particles
parts thatmake up an atom
nucleus
located in electron cloud
different number of neutrons = isotope
protons + neutrons
= atomic mass
Do not change the identity of the atom.
Types of Matter Foldable:
To make a 4 door foldable:
1. Hold paper landscape orientation.
2. Fold in half hamburger style.
3. Open up paper.
4. Fold edges to fold you just made in the center.
5. Fold in half hamburger style.
6. Cut along door flaps to make 4 doors.
molecule
compound
atom
element
Labels for the outside flaps:
A molecule is a particle with two or more atoms joined by chemical bonds. It could be that the 2 atoms are the same (they could also be considered an element).
qQh
Why are the drawings on the front flap considered molecules?
An atom is a single particle of matter. It is made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons. The protons & neutrons are inside the nucleus. The electrons are outside the nucleus.
Why is Lithium an example of an atom?
A compound is a molecule that contains at least 2 different atoms. All compounds are molecules but not all molecules are compounds. A compound is a type of molecule.
Why are the drawings on the front flap considered compounds?
An element is a collection of the same type of atom.
Why is Br an example of an element?
2
O
2
H
2
H O
2
H O
2
CO
2
CH
4
Br
2
Now that we've reviewed the different types of matter, we're going to focus on atoms in this unit.
OLD STUFF
Anything after this slide is considered not part of your learning. It's archived material from previous years. In other words, no need to worry about it.
Groups of the Periodic Table Foldable
Procedure:
1. 2 of the same page - Groups of the Periodic table foldable
2. Cut along all outside lines only!
3. Cut along horizontal lines ONLY to vertical line that is touching the horizontal lines.
4. Fold along inner vertical line (to make an anchor tab.
5. Glue - dot, dot, no a lot! ONLY on the vertical anchor tab you just made into your INB.
What do you need?
colored pencils (or crayons)
Groups of the periodic table foldable (2 of the same page)
scissors
INB
Group 1:
You will be writing the properties of each group on the inside (the NB paper that's under each flap)
The back of the flap is for real life examples of each group's properties.
Alkali Metals
Title for front of flap:
Period
Group
Are groups horizontal or vertical?
vertical
Properties:
This goes on the NB paper below the flap.
Group 1
The most reactive metal family, these must be stored under oil because they react violently with water!

They dissolve and create an alkaline, or basic solution, hence their name.
Alkali Metals
Real life example:
Yellow fireworks are made from a metal salt. Sodium nitrate NaNO burns yellow, creating a yellow firework.
3
Group 2:
Alkaline Earth Metals
title for front of flap:
color this column (group 2)
orange
color this column (group 1)
yellow
Alkaline Earth Metals:
Properties:
This goes on the NB paper under flap.
shiny.
silvery-white.
somewhat reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure (STP).
readily lose their two outermost electrons to form cations with a 2+ charge.
low densities.
low melting points.
low boiling points.
One outer electron which they easily lose to form 1+ cation.
= 25 degrees celsius and 1 atm
To make green fireworks, Barium chloride BaCl is used.
2
Barium is unstable at room temperature so it must be combined with a more stable compond like chlorinated rubber.
The chlorine is released from the heat and it combines with Barium to make the green color.
Groups 3-12 = Transition Metals
Color the transition metals (groups 3-12)
red
.
Transition Metal Properties:
this goes on the NB paper under the flap.
form colored compounds.
good conductors of heat and electricity.
malleable: can be hammered or bent into shape easily.
ductile: can be drawn into wires
high melting points
high boiling points
low ionization energies
bright red = strontium salts
strontium carbonate (SrCO )
3
blue = copper compound mixed with chlorine powder
Semi-metals (aka metalloids)
Touch the bold, stair-step line.
color the semi-metals
blue
.
B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, At
Electronegativities between those of metals and nonmetals
Ionization energies between those of metals and nonmetals
Possess some characteristics of metals/some of nonmetals
Reactivity depends on properties of other elements in reaction
Often make good semiconductors
Properties of Semi-metals:
Write this on NB paper under the flap.
Real-life uses of semi-metals:
Silicon Valley?
South Bay Area
CA
border with Oregon
international border
with Mexico
Pyrex is made using Boron.
Silicon dioxide is found in sand.
Silicon is used in computer chips.
Arsenic is used in some pesticides.
Non-metals: Group 14-17
Color them
light green
.
C, N, O, F, P, S, Cl, Se, Br, I
Non-metals Properties:
Nonmetals have high ionization energies and electronegativities.
They are generally poor conductors of heat and electricity.
Solid nonmetals are generally brittle, with little or no metallic luster.
Most nonmetals have the ability to gain electrons easily.
Nonmetals display a wide range of chemical properties and reactivities.
this goes on the NB paper under the flap.
Real-life uses of non-metals:
Noble Gases:
Group 18
Color group 18
purple.
Properties:
aka: inert gases
Gases at room temperature
The noble gases are relatively nonreactive. This is because they have a complete valence shell.
They have little tendency to gain or lose electrons.
The noble gases have high ionization energies
negligible electronegativities. (negligible = very low)
The noble gases have low boiling points and are all gases at room temperature.


Real-life uses of noble gaes:
Helium balloons float because helium is less dense than air. (Things float if they are less dense than the substance they're "floating in" - That's how your inflatable raft floats on water. The air is less dense than water.
neon signs
Marie Curie (1867-1934) regarding the element radium and the phenomenon of radioactivity (she discovered the element, and coined the latter term).


Read more: http://www.scienceclarified.com/everyday/Real-Life-Chemistry-Vol-2/Noble-Gases-Real-life-applications.html#ixzz3jgGihRJj
The majority of the Earth's helium supply belongs to the United States, where the greatest abundance of helium-supplying wells are in Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas.

Read more: http://www.scienceclarified.com/everyday/Real-Life-Chemistry-Vol-2/Noble-Gases-Real-life-applications.html#ixzz3jgGihRJj
This part doesn't have to go on your foldable but you should find a place on one of these 2 pages to take some notes.
Actinides & Lanthanides:
aka: Actinides & Lanthanides
Bottom 2 rows - they make a periodic table too long to be printed so they are included at the bottom. They belong after group 2 on the bottom and before the transition metals.
Actinides are typical metals. All of them are soft, have a silvery color (but tarnish in air), and have relatively high density and plasticity. Some of them can be cut with a knife.

Source: Boundless. “Lanthanides and Actinides.” Boundless Chemistry. Boundless, 21 Jul. 2015. Retrieved 23 Aug. 2015 from https://www.boundless.com/chemistry/textbooks/boundless-chemistry-textbook/transition-metals-22/properties-of-transition-metals-156/lanthanides-and-actinides-601-7513/
Most lanthanides are formed when uranium and plutonium undergo nuclear reactions.

Source: Boundless. “Lanthanides and Actinides.” Boundless Chemistry. Boundless, 21 Jul. 2015. Retrieved 23 Aug. 2015 from https://www.boundless.com/chemistry/textbooks/boundless-chemistry-textbook/transition-metals-22/properties-of-transition-metals-156/lanthanides-and-actinides-601-7513/
Thomson's plum pudding model
Rutherford's gold foil experiment
Atomic Theory
Protons and neutrons inside the nucleus.
Electrons outside of the nucleus in the electron cloud.
atomic number
chemical name
chemical symbol
average atomic mass
protons
protons
neutrons
for our purposes, electrons mass is so insignificant, that you can treat them as if they have no mass at all.
How do you calculate number of neutrons?
M.

A.

N.
mass
atomic number
- minus
= equals
number of neutrons
_______
______
______
Let's try it out for oxygen!
16
8
8
Don't forget it, man!
round to the nearest whole number.
which is?
16
oxygen
Let's do the first one together!
8
8
16
round to nearest whole
(.5 and up, round up!)
8
8
in an electrically neutral atom, there is no charge so number of protons (positive charge) and number of electrons (negative charge are the same)
Bohr Model of the Atom:
1913: Bohr improved on Rutherford's model by specifically describing the behavior and position of the electrons in the atom.
Emission Spectra:
Bohr determined that colors emitted by elements were coming from the electrons.
nucleus
Bohr's planetary model of the atom:
In the middle = dense, positively charged nucleus (containing protons & neutrons)
Electrons orbit around the nucleus on specific orbitals.
Each orbit has a fixed amount of energy. Electrons on that orbit have that amount of energy.
The closest orbit to the nucleus has the lowest energy.
Going further away from the nucleus, the energy of each orbit increases.
The interger n represents the energy of each orbit..
If a photon (with the right amount of energy = quantum) hits the electron in a specific orbit, it will jump up to the next energy level.
This is not stable and the electron will "fall" back down to its original orbit. It will release the energy in the form of light energy.
Excited State:
How to draw bohr diagrams:
Hydrogen (H)
protons:
(atomic number)

neutrons:
(mass - protons)

electrons:
(neutral so protons = neutrons)
1
0
1
Helium bohr model:
protons:

neutrons:


electrons:
2
2
4
Lithium Bohr Model:
protons:

neutrons:

electrons:
3
4
3
Now, the atomic dating game...
Octet Rule:
oct = how many?
8
A full octet is the most stable configuration of valence electrons.
A full octet is 8 electrons.
duet rule:
2 valence electrons
H, He, B
follow this rule
All atoms are looking to be stable.
Think of the noble gases as royalty. All the other elements are commoners...they just want to be like the royals!
Atoms want to have a full octet (or duet for those who follow the duet rule).
What are valence electrons?
physical science, yo!
Electrons in the highest energy level of an atom?
Remember, energy levels increase going away from the nucleus.
Valence electrons are electrons in the outer-most energy level.
What are valence electrons?
outermost electrons
What is a full octet?
8 valence electrons
Valence electrons are important because they are the electrons which participate in forming chemical bonds.
Lewis Dot Structure Notes
History of Atomic Theory:
First elements known since the time of the Ancient Greeks
used metallic elements:
gold (Au)
silver (Ag)
Copper (Cu)
lead (Pb)
tin (Sn)
mercury (Hg)
1649: Henning Brand (German) first to discover element (P) using scientific inquiry
1789: Antoine Lavoisier defined what chemical element meant and draw a table that contained the 33 known elements. He grouped them into 4 categories (gases, nonmetals, metals & earths)
1869: 63 elements had been discovered
1829: German Johann Dobereiner grouped elements based on similiarites. Law of Triads: groups of 3 chemically similar elements
1862: French geologist Alexandre Beguyer de Chancourtois made a list of all the known elements as a helical graph wrapped around a cylinder. It was the first example of perodicity (a pattern) in the chemical & physical properties of elements. They were organized by increasing atomic mass. He used geological terms so they were ignored until Mendeleev's work.
1865: English chemist John Newlands arranged 62 known elements by atomic mass in an 8-column table. It produced some misalignments, some elements had to be put in the same box to show the periodicity. His work was ridiculed & ignored and its imporance was not appreciated until Meneleev.
Demetri Mendeelev is generally given credit as being the "father of the perodic table".
He and Lothar Meyer produced similiar results at the same time, each working independently. Mendeleev's table was published first (1869 compared to 1870) so he tends to get the credit as the father of the perioidic table.
It was arranged by increasing atomic mass.
Why is Mendeelev's work considered so great?
designed in such a way that it organized all known elements and left spaces for elements that hadn't yet been discovered.
He was able to predict properties of 5 of the missing elements and their compounds.
1911: Ernest Rutherford (New Zealand) discovered the proton and published studies that led to the determination of nuclear charge.
English Physicist Henry Moseley exposed the known elements to x-rays. This lead him to realize the periodic table should be arranged according to atomic numbers and not atomic masses.
This elimiated some of the inconsistencies with Mendeleev's table.
The modern Periodic Table is based on Moseley's Periodic Law. It was published in 1913 and justified that nearly all positive charges are in the nucleus.
The properties of the elements varied with atomic number and not atomic mass.
Quantum Numbers
The Bohr model is a 1D model that uses 1 quantum number to describe where electrons are located in an atom.
Schrodinger came up with a model using 3 quantum numbers to describe where the electrons are probably located in an atom.
They describe the size, shape and orientation in space of the orbitals of an atom.
Quantum Number Rules:
The three quantum numbers (n, l, and m) that describe an orbital are integers: 0, 1, 2, 3, and so on.
The principal quantum number (n) cannot be zero. The allowed values of n are therefore 1, 2, 3, 4, and so on.
The angular quantum number (l) can be any integer between 0 and n - 1. If n = 3, for example, l can be either 0, 1, or 2.
The magnetic quantum number (m) can be any integer between -l and +l. If l = 2, m can be either -2, -1, 0, +1, or +2.
Each quantum number is composed of 4 things:
energy level
sublevel
magnetic quantum number
spin quantum number
We will focus on energy level and sublvel.
Going across a period, each atom has 1 more electron than the atom before it.
Hydrogen: 1s
1
Helium: 1s
2
Lithium: 1s, 2s
2
1
Beryllium: 1s, 2s
2
2
Boron: 1s, 2s, 2p
2
2
1
Carbon: 1s, 2s, 2p
2
2
2
Tips: Always write the period number before the letter. It is not correct to write for
Boron: 1s, 2s, p
2
2
1
Pennies used to be made of bronze (95% Cu and 5% Sn and Zn)
Now it's mostly Zn (97.5) and 2.5% Cu
What do coins cost to make?
penny = 2.4 cents
nickel = 8 cents
dime = 3.9 cents
quarter = 9 cents
Ionization:
removing electrons from an atom or molecule
dissociation of ionic compounds into free ions

Background:
atoms have no electric charge
if they become charged, they are called ions
ions are involved in ionic bonding
bond between a metal and non metal ions
very strong bonds
Real Life Uses of Ioniztion
field ionization
static electricity
ion exchange
water purification
mass spectrometry
determine identity of a substance
ionizating radiation
from radioactive decay
radiation that carries enough energy to free electrons from atoms or molecules
gamma rays, x-rays, UV-C rays
How
Lightning
Works
Essential Question:

What happens during a rocket launch to allow the shuttle to leave earth and enter space?
Unit 3: Anchoring Phenomenon
Rocket Launch
In Groups (2-3 people), develop a group model (pictures) and explain what you think happens to cause the rocket to lift off from ground.
Question(s) about the phenomenon:
What is fuel?
Let it Burn!
purpose:
To experimentally determine which materials burn and which do not.
materials:

wooden splint
paper
nail
Observations:

Write down what you observe happening.
Interpretation:

Draw what you think is happening at the particle level.
title:
Conclusion:
Combustion means to burn
What is fuel made of?
Fuel is made of matter.
Matter is made of atoms (small particles) held together by chemical bonds.
Title:
Matter Scavenger Hunt
Your job is to:
Find examples of how matter occurs in nature (around the room).
Essential Question: Does matter exist more often as single atoms or atoms chemically bonded to other atoms (molecules and compounds)?
Please answer the Essential Question of Matter Scavenger Hunt:
Most matter in nature is made up of combinations of atoms (chemically bonded to make molelcues and compounds) and few examples of individual, unconnected atoms exist.
New page...don't forget about TOC!
Let it Burn...continued
What observations did you make? How can you explain them (inference)?
Using evidence from the demonstrations, why do some things burn and some things don't burn?
Burning is a chemical reaction that invovles the outer-most (highest) energy level electrons.
Usually oxygen is one of the substances and the other is something that has excess electrons.
The nail doesn't burn but the paper does. Why do you think this is?
Think about how the particles are arranged differently in the nail compared to the paper and how this would affect burnability....
metals are good conductors of heat
conduct the heat away from the spark so that the metal doesn't get hot enough to reach its ignition point
metals don't hold their electrons tightly so they float around the atoms as a sea of electrons
makes them good conductors of heat and electricity
The paper burns because it is bad conductor of heat
the heat doesn't get conducted away and the paper atoms reach their ignition point
Is all matter the same?
please explain
Conclusion of Let it Burn
How can what we have seen help begin to explain the shuttle lift-off?
What questions do you still have about the lift-off?
What did you learn that is most important in going forward in explaining the shuttle lift-off?
Matter:
anything that has volume (takes up space) and mass.
All matter is made of atoms.
When you get down to the atom level, all matter is made of atoms so what its made of is the same but the atoms themselves can be different.
Answer: It depends on the level of detail and the perspective you're speaking from.
Conclusion...continued
Conclusion...continued
Conclusion...continued
Conclusion...continued
Key Points of Let it Burn:
Fuel is made of matter
matter is made of small particles (atoms) which have volume and mass
Some matter is made or connected differently than other matter

What is happening at the particle level during burning:
Interpretation of Let it Burn observations
heat causes atoms to move more quickly
when the atoms speed up, friction increases the heat
when enough heat is produced to raise the atoms to their ignition point, they burn
What should you write at each station?
One real life example and its chemical symbol (or formula) and a mini definition of each:
Monoatomic Elements:
Diatomic Elements:
Compounds:
Alloys:
Please do this on your paper
Matter Scavenger Hunt
Why are there very few examples of matter made up of individual atoms?
Discussion:
Matter Scavenger Hunt
Most atoms are not stable when they are alone. They react with other atoms to become more stable.
Dot, Dot, Lewis Dot

See Dot, Dot, Lewis Dot Prezi
aka: unit 3 bonding with names prezi
Full transcript