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ありがとうございます！ Questions? Applying what we have learned
in classrooms, school administration offices, business, and organizations Application Self-awareness (of your own cultural background, prejudices, stereotypes you may hold, etc.)
Avoid believing in and supporting others’ stereotypes
Be an honest, active, flexible communicator
Respect differences that are present
Ask questions, and, as many mothers have told us, think twice before speaking
Accept the difficulties that natural occur when people communicate Strategies for Effective Intercultural Communication Edward Hall: Low (explicit communication is important) and high (norms are understood) context cultures
Geert Hofstede: studied interactions between national and organizational cultures.
Fons Trompenaars: Individualism vs. Collectivism
Milton Bennett: Development Model of Intercultural Sensitivity; Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI)
John Condon: Wrote With Respect to the Japanese: Going to Work in Japan, as well as Semantics and Communication
Derald Wing Sue: Multicultural scholar; author of several groundbreaking books on multiculturalism. Notable Researchers and Scholars Cultural assumptions
Verbal and nonverbal miscommunications/misinterpretations
Preconceptions and Stereotypes
Tendency to judge
Anxiety/Depression associated with culture shock What are some challenges to intercultural communication? Definitions:
-In 1871, Edward B. Tyler provided the first definition of culture: “Culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, arts, law, morals, custom, and any other habits acquired by humans who are members of a society.”
-Kovel (1984) defines culture as “an evolving system of meaningful relations deriving from the sum total of the activities and institutions of a society” (p. 25).
-Klopf and McCroskey (2007) present two means of viewing culture: a broad version and a narrow version. The broad version includes “artifacts” (manufactured items of a society), “sociofacts” (norms and laws), and “mentifacts” (cognition and emotion); the narrow version includes a more personal experience in which one’s experiences influence how one thinks and behaves (p. 21). Culture Defined What does culture mean to you? Question #2 -to gain intercultural competence;
-to apply strategies that promote effective intercultural communication in a variety of settings; and
-to have fun! Objectives Hall, E. T. (1990). The Hidden Dimension. New York: Anchor.
Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and Organizations. London: McGraw Hill.
Klopf, D. W. & McCroskey, J. C. (2007). Intercultural Communication Encounters. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.
Kovel, J. (1984). White Racism: A Psychohistory. Columbia University Press: New York, NY.
Nam, K., & Condon, J. (2009). The D.I.E. is cast. The continuing evolution of intercultural communication’s favorite exercise. International Journal of International Relations, 34 (2010) 81-87. Elsevier.
Trompenaars, F., & Hampden-Turner, C. (1997). Riding the Waves of Culture. London. Nicholas Brealey.
Tyler, E. B. (1871). Primitive Culture. New York: J.P. Putnam’s Sons. References 1) Put 3 items in the envelope. These items should say who you are as a cultural being.
2) Do not write your name on the envelope!
3) Gather a few envelopes, mix them, and pass them around. Now look inside (make sure it’s not yours!), focus on one item, and then write one word describing that person.
4) After three turns, the envelope is returned, and the owner reads the words aloud, and describes the items and their true significance.
This is a great way to open up the lines of communication between students, faculty, and coworkers! The “Tell-All” Envelope In America, while teaching English to a diverse group of international students, a new Russian student raises her hand and calmly asks if “negers” are dangerous.
How would you respond?
Pretend it never happened.
Use it as a “teaching moment”
Reprimand her in front of the class or privately?
Something else? Case Study *AKA D.I.E. (Describe, Interpret, Evaluate) Describe: What’s going on? (general agreement)
Analyze: Why is it happening? (alternative explanations)
Evaluate: How do I feel about it? (no one else has to agree)
Objectives: To foster greater self- awareness and discernment between:
-judgment/personal opinion DAE
(Nam & Condon, 2009) http://culturalproficiency.wikispaces.com/Resources The Cultural Iceberg
Visible and Invisible Aspects of Culture Theories and Applications Research http://www.newdirectionsconsulting.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/life-in-a-matrix-7-cross-cultural.jpg So how do we get past these differences in order to communicate effectively? “A communicative exchange between persons of different cultures.”
(Klopf and McCrosky, 2007, p. 58) http://www.united-church.ca/files/intercultural/multicultural-crosscultural-intercultural.pdf Multicultural means living alongside one another. This involves levels of tolerance and polite social interactions.
Cross-Cultural means living alongside one another, but there are attempts at reaching across cultural borders (involves intentionality and community building)
Intercultural means our social structures and everyday interactions are defined by justice, mutuality, respect, equality, understanding, acceptance, freedom, diversity, peace-making, and celebration. Intercultural community hopes to take us deeper than multicultural or cross-cultural models. Asian Conference on Language Learning
Osaka, Japan Daniel Velasco, Ph.D.
The Chicago School of Professional Psychology
Intercultural Communication Strategies for Professionals Klopf & McCroskey, 2007, in order to become a competent intercultural communicator, one should
be able to listen skillfully,
recognize language barriers,
understand nonverbal behavior,
and understand personal needs, values, beliefs, and attitudes.
“Intercultural communication competence involves the knowledge, motivation, and skills to act effectively and appropriately with members of difference cultures.” In Conclusion, http://www.evanscartoons.com/image.php?id=1294733061 (Klopf & McCroskey, 2007) When cultural differences exist, the listener adds a layer of interpretation based on his or her own cultural experiences, including verbal language and non-verbal communication.
The feedback given by the listener to the speaker is based on the listener’s cultural biases, and the feedback will reflect that influence.
In turn, the original communicator processes the feedback through his or her own cultural lens. The greater the number of microcultural differences, the less likely it is that people will have effective communication. Put another way… Intercultural Cross-Cultural Cross Cultural vs. Intercultural Communication So are we that different? Between 2010-2011, I surveyed 300 people from America, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, El Salvador, Nigeria, Egypt, South Africa, almost every country in Western Europe, Russia, Iran, South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, China, Thailand, England, Australia, and New Zealand. They were asked the same question. 98% of responses fell into these 3 categories:
2. Career/Passion (e.g., writing)
3. Health/Quality of life (personal satisfaction with overall conditions) List the three things that are most important to you? Question #1