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TEACHING METHODS WORLD
Transcript of TEACHING METHODS WORLD
It is an offshoot of the communicative approach, wherein activities focus on having students use authentic target language in order to complete meaningful tasks, i.e. situations they might encounter in the real world and other project-based assignments.
TASK-BASED learnıng METHOD
What Is Task-based Teaching?
Why Use Task-based Teaching?
In task-based teaching, the center of the learning process moves to the students themselves and allows them to come to the realization that language is a tool to tackle and (re)solve real-world problems.
The process of task-based learning itself teaches important skills. Students learn how to ask questions, how to negotiate meaning and how to interact in and work within groups. Within this group work, they are able to observe different approaches to problem solving as well as to learn how others think and make decisions.
These are all skills that our students will need in order to be successful in the real world, regardless of which language(s) they use there.
In addition, task-based teaching provides students with the linguistic components they will need to accomplish these real-world tasks. These include: How to introduce themselves, how to talk about themselves, their families, their interests, their likes and dislikes, their needs, etc. in the right socio-cultural context.
TYPES OF TASKS
Information gap activities
are those that involve the transfer of information from one person to another, from one form to another or from one place to another. For example, two students might have different schedules, but they want to find time to get together to have tea.
They need to get relevant information from each other to determine when they are both free, as well as when the available times coincide with when a tea house is open. This type of activity allows students to request information,
ask for clarification and negotiate both meaning, particularly when misunderstandings occur, and appropriate conclusions to the task.
Reasoning gap activities
are those in which you ask your students to derive some information from that which you give them. They are required to
comprehend and convey information
, much as in an information gap activity, but the information that they are asked to convey is not exactly the same that they comprehend. They are asked to use reason and logic to decide what information to convey and what resolution to make for the problem at hand.
For example, you might ask your students to make a decision between speed and cost or cost and quality, given a certain situation and various constraints.
Opinion gap activities
are those that ask students to convey their own personal preferences, feelings or ideas about a particular situation. On a higher level, you might ask them to take part in a discussion or debate about a political or social issue. On a lower level, you might ask them to complete a story. In these types of activities,
there is no right or wrong answer
, and, therefore, there is no objective means by which to judge outcomes, outside of whether what the students do or say addresses the task at hand. You might require them to
speak or write
for a certain amount (words or time) and you might ask them to use certain constructions. Otherwise, assessment is subjective rather than objective.
Students tend to be active and participate with great motivation towards tasks and activities in a TBL environment. It offers a platform for students to display their skills through their efforts and develops them further.
Language learners work and co-operate with each other in groups which builds bonds between them. When working in groups they are able to display and produce meaningful interaction on a given topic. Also the class work together and assess the whole outcome of the lesson.
Skehan (1996) expressed that TBL could have some dangers if it is not executed correctly and could result in affecting the growth and change of the language learners' interlanguage. So from this view we can see that some sort of fossilization may occur within the students and cause barriers for the learners to progress.
Seedhouse (1999) implies that it could be argued that TBL emphasises too much on tasks and communicating meaning and this could have an impact on how to use the language with the correct form. In addition to this it is important to realise that there is a lot more to communication than performing tasks.