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Anglerfish and Bioluminiscent bacteria symbiotic relationship

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Tianyi G

on 9 April 2014

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Transcript of Anglerfish and Bioluminiscent bacteria symbiotic relationship

ANGLERFISH
BIOLUMINESCENT BACTERIA
RELATIONSHIP
general information
The Anglerfish is a carnivorous fish that lives in the depths of the Atlantic and Antarctic oceans. They are generally dark grey or brown, have big crescent shaped headS with sharp translucent teeth. Anglerfish vary from 20 centimeters to 3.3 feet (1 meter) although most of them are less than a foot.
Size relative to a teacup
4
Basic Needs
All living organisms have basic needs of
air, water, food and habitat.
AIR
The Anglerfish meets it's need of air through it's
Oxyandelor which allows them to "recycle" oxygen . The Oxyandelor is a special organ located unter the gills that pumps carbon dioxide into oxygen.
food
The Anglerfish gets food in a interesting way with the help of Bioluminescent bacteria. They have the bacteria around their mouths which attracts prey. Because of the size of their mouths and their body shape, they can eat up to 2x their size.
Habitat
The Anglerfish live in the depths of the Atlantic and Antarctic oceans where is hovers around 2°C.
Water
Since the water is hypertonic, some of it gets sent through their digestive tract and the rest flows over their gills.
Adaptations
The dorsal spine that protrudes above their mouths like a fishing pole is used to lure prey and find mates. Only females have this adaptation. (Bioluminescence)
The male (significantly smaller than the female) latches onto the female, becoming a permanent parasitic mate. Over time, the male fuses into the female. The female can carry six or more males on her body. This Allows the female to impregnate herself.
Their body's are shaped so they can hover motionless in the water to conserve energy
Niche
Anglerfish
Prey of minimal predators (bigger, aggressive fish)
predator of many smaller fish and marine animals
carnivore
Provides habitat for bioluminescent bacteria
food chain
SUN
SNAILS, SHRIMP AND OTHER SMALL SEA LIFE
ANGLER FISH
HUMANS
SHARKS
Trophic level
The Anglerfish is a Secondary Consumer.
What do the Anglerfish eat?
The Anglerfish can eat:
Snails
Clams
Worms
Shrimp
Other smaller fish
Occasionally larger fish
Are we affecting them?
Humans rarely interact with Anglerfish but when we do, it is a negative affect. The way we affect the Angler has not chages over the years. Due to the fact that we do not interact with the Anlger very often, we do not affect them majorly. However, some species are eaten as delicacies in Europe and Asia. This affects them because we are eating them. This causes the number of Anglers to decrease.
General Information
The Bioluminescent bacateria (from its name) is bacteria.They are found in sea water, fish digestive tracts, and on the surface of decaying fish. Some fish and squid have put this bioluminescence to use as a form of lure or to attract mates. This Bacterica is typically a curved rod 1 to 3 microns long.
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basic needs
All living organisms have four basic needs of food, water, air, and habitat.
Food
They "eat" everything from sugar and starch to sunlight, sulfur and iron.
Water

Most foods naturally contain sufficient moisture to provide the bacteria with the water they need in order to grow.
Air
This bacteria is made up of and oxygen particle
Habitat
Bioluminescent bacteria is primarily found in marine habitats and live inside other organisms in the ocean.
Adaptations
Niche
Bioluminescent Bacteria
eats everything from sugar and starch to sunlight, sulfur and iron.
helps animals find mates
helps animals camouflage
helps organisms catch prey
They make proteins called enzymes. The enzymes chop the food into tiny subunits which then come into the bacteria cell by osmosis or active transport.
Once the chemical level reaches a specific threshold, each bacterium illuminates with the help of a chemical reaction.
reproduce asexually
Food chain
Tropic level :
Autotroph
What do Bioluminescent Bacteria eat?
They "eat" everything from sugar and starch to sulfur and iron.
Are we affecting them?
Humans do not really affect bioluminescent bacteria.
Lights off
lights on
Male angler
Female angler
Type of relationship
It is a Mutualistic relationship
who benefits, is harmed, or is not effected?
Because it is a mutualistic relationship, both are benefited.
Positive effects
Anglerfish: The Anglerfish benifits from the bioluminescent bacteria from its illumination. The illumination in the esca helps the Angler lure prey.
Bioluminescent Bacteria: The Bacteria is provided with nutrients and a protected environment.
Interactions
In the relationship, The Bacteria helps the Angler lure prey while the Angler provides nutirents and a protected environment. The bacteria cannot live long without a host.
The adaptations that make this relationship possible
The dorsal spine that protrudes above their mouths like a fishing pole is used to lure prey and find mates. Only females have this adaptation. (Bioluminescence)
Once the chemical level reaches a specific threshold, each bacterium illuminates with the help of a chemical reaction.
Fact
The esca of the Angler occationally "leaks" bacteria into the water. The Angler fish's offspring can use it in their own lures.
THE END! :)
PHYTOPLANKTON
ZOOPLANKTON
PHYTOPLANKTON
ZOOPLANKTON
SHRIMP AND OTHER SMALL FISH
BOBTAIL SQUID
(CONTAINS BIOLUMINESCENT BACTERIA)
SHARK
Full transcript