Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

glaucoma

No description
by

Ala Shamasneh

on 11 October 2014

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of glaucoma

n
.
l
we have five classes of drug
1- beta blockers
2- alpha agonist (alpha 2 agonist and nonspecific agonist)
3- carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
4- parasympathomimetics
5- prostoglandin analogs

Drugs that decrease
aqueous humor production:



Drugs that increase the aqueous humor outflow:
Cholinergic (Miotic)
non specific adrenergic agonists
Prostaglandins analogs

Beta blockers
Alpha2- agonists
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

low BP, bradycardia; arrhythmia; heart failure; heart block.
shortness of breath
Rare side effects include reduced libido and depression.
selective adrenergic agonists
apraclonidine, brimonidine
prejunctional NE release, production and IOP

Side Effects
Ocular side effects include follicular conjunctivitis, burning, reactive hyperemia...
Systemically, they can cause headache, dry mouth, fatigue, bradycardia, and hypotension
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
side effects:
gradual change in eye color, due to an increased amount of brown pigment in the iris of the treated eye.
Other side effects can include stinging, blurred vision, eye redness, itching, and burning.

prostaglandins
are taken as eye drops
have few systemic side effects.
increase uveoscleral outflowؤمثقشم
are effective at reducing intraocular pressure in people who have open-angle glaucoma

such as a beta blocker and alpha adrenergic agonist, or a beta blocker and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor.
Decreases production of intraocular fluid.
Combined medications can offer an alternative for patients who need more than one type of medication.

Combined medications
pharmacologiacl treatment
also it can be classified as:
action site of antiglaucoma drugs
1 & 2 mitotic (cholinergic)
3 beta blocker
4 prostaglandin analog
5 alpha agonist
1-beta blockers:

block beta receptors in the iris and ciliary body block the action of NE in the ciliary epithelium reduce production
IOP
classify into:
non-selective beta blockers:
timolol, levobunolol, metipranolol and carteolol
selective beta 1 blockers:
betaxolol
non-specific adrenergic agonists
alpha agonists
epinephrine
dipivefrin
(acetazolamide, brinzolamide, dorzolamide, methazolamide)
ؤ
reduce HCO3 so reduce formation of aqueous humour

Adminstration:
1-topical 2-oraly 3-IV or IM
side effects:
systemic CAI: transient myopia; parasthesia of the fingers, toes, and perioral area; urinary frequency; metabolic acidosis; malaise; fatigue; weight
contraindications:
hepatic disease renal insufficiency
hyponatremia hypokalemia
electrolyte imbalance
parasympathomimetics:
pilocarpine, carbachol
their use has declined due to their side effect
OR
It is a heterogenous group of diseases that cause optic neuropathy .
It is the most common disease of the eye
in most cases assosciated with elevated IOP.

• How does incresed IOP Cause Glaucoma?
Epidemiology:
• In the world ,glaucoma is the third leading cause of blindness.

• An estimated 13.5 million people may have glaucoma and 5.2 million of those may be blind.


• Glaucoma often is called the
"silent thief of sight"
• For this reason, glaucoma often progresses undetected until the optic nerve already has been irreversibly damaged.

Classification of glaucoma
acheived by :
• Medication
• Laser therapy
• Surgery

The goal of Glaucoma treatment:
• Preserve the visual field
• Prevent the loss of visual function

Open angle glaucoma
close angle glaucoma
Most
common type
it is called
chronic
or
wide
angle glaucoma
Drainage angle between iris and cornea is open
Rise in pressure is caused by resistance to outflow through trabecular meshwork
Asympyomatic
Vision loss is
irreversible
Lifelong condition
open angle glaucoma
Less
common type
it is called
narrow
or
acute
Drainage angle closes off
Rise in pressure is caused by iris completely closing off drainage angle
Acute condition :
Symptoms are sudden severe pain, blurry vision and red eye (Nausea and vomiting are also possible)
Vision loss is irreversible,
unless
treated early
Requires
immediate medical attention
Curable
, if treated within time
close angle glaucoma
angle closure glaucoma
open angle glaucoma

AL-Quds University
Pharmacology
Glaucoma and drugs used for its management
Made by Ihdaa Adawi and Ala shamasneh

Full transcript