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on 10 November 2018

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what is perception?
sense of sight
Group 2
University of Surrey
Tourism Experience
the five senses
sense of smell
Most closely tied to the memory
(Wilkie, 1994)
; linking the past and present to linger to inform the future through 'recall'
(Dann & Jacobsen, 2003)

Highly dependent on individual

Example: Spring Scents of Amsterdam
In tourism, perception is the mental image the tourist forms of the destination that he or she intends to visit
(Crouch, Perdue and Immermans, 2004)

Plays a vital role in tourists' choice of destination and pre-purchase decision
(MacLellan and Foushee, 1983)

Sensation: the process of collecting information via organs
(Levine, 2006).
sense of taste
flavors are detected through the sense organs in the tongue (Merriam Webster, 2016)
sense of hearing
the sensation produced by stimulation of the organs of hearing by vibrations transmitted through the air or other medium
sense of sight
sense of touch
Texture incorporates all sensations from pressure on any part of the skin that is not painful and temperature specific
(Coren, Ward and Enns, 2004)

Many of the most pleasurable experiences are associated with the stimulation of tactile sense
(Gallace and Spence, 2011)

Tourism example: hotels
- Beds, duvet covers, etc. are designed to bring comfort to guests
a complex sense, involving the skin and hand (Swedberg, 2011)
sense of hearing
the sensation produced by stimulation of the organs of hearing by vibrations transmitted through the air or other medium (Mather, 2009)
Travel experiences are complex combinations of a variety of sensory inputs
(Morgan, Lugosi and Ritchie, 2010)

A successful tourism destination should attract tourists by providing all of the senses
(Dann & Jacobsen, 2003)

Enhances the feeling of authenticity and experience
(Isacsson, Alakoski and Bäck, 2011)
smell perception:
invisible and has strong connections to emotions and memory (Dann and Jacobsen, 2003)
Gastronomic pleasures of taste -
59 per cent of travel sites adopting taste for advertisements

(Elder & Hill, 2003)

Food characteristics and its cooking methods have proven to have notable effects on tourists' purchase behaviour
(Radzi et. al., 2015)

Specialist food production region can be the primary motivation for tourists to travel

Food Destinations:
Italy, Japan and Thailand
Figure 7: Smellmap: Amsterdam
(Source: McLean, 2014)
Sound can provoke memories and emotions
(Davies, 1994)

Sounds heard create a lasting experience that one is unlikely to encounter when in another destination
(Dunn, 2008)

Example: Incredible !ndia TV Commercial campaign
Figure 6: Rajasthan's International Folk Music Festival
(Source: Motihar, 2011)

perceived as the noblest of senses, able to enhance and complement other senses (Swedberg, 2011)
Fiigure 3: Visuals are more attractive to the eyes
Figure 4: Texts are less appealing to the eyes

Source: Gardener, 2012
- 44 tourists participated in the smellwalks in April 2013, over 650 smells were identified
Often associated with dining experience (taste)
Figure 5: Japan - Season of Sakuras
Source: Demetriou, 2016
One of the world’s premier culinary meccas

Known for its sushi and ramen

Provides a taste of authenticity

Japanese culinary classes offered to tourists
Figure 2: The perceptual process in the case of tourism destination, adapted from Goldstein, 2014
Figure 8: Tactual museum in Athens, Greece
Source: Turtle, 2012
Figure 9: Future of Sex tourism in Amsterdam
Tourist’s perceptions rarely occur in isolation; instead, all of the senses are stimulated concurrently
(Gallace and Spence, 2011).

The use of multiple senses in tourism communication can create awareness and motivation among future travellers, and enhance feelings of authenticity and experience among customer
(Isacsson, Alakoski and Bäck, 2011)
Renowned for its cusine and wine -
providing flavors, scents and aroma

Use of traditional means for preparation

Italian culinary classes offered to tourists
Figure 10: Deep Massage
Visual aspect is emphasised over other senses due to Urry's
concept of 'tourist gaze'
(Rojek and Urry, 1997)

Vision in brand building and bonding is the most important sense with a persuasive share of 58%
(Lindstrom & Kotler, 2005)

Sense of sight is the first contact point for tourists and the beginning of a tourist experience/behaviour
(Lepp and Gibson, 2008)

It provokes tourists’ curiosity and allows them to construct an image of the destination
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