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4.2 Forum: Valerie, Tamar, Lorena, Johanna, Shannon
Transcript of 4.2 Forum: Valerie, Tamar, Lorena, Johanna, Shannon
Lorena, & Shannon GRAPHIC ORGANIZER:
Hakuta's "How Long Does It
Take English Learners To
Attain Proficiency?" INTRODUCTION:
The data in this study supports the theory that oral proficiency (BICS) acquisition in English requires at least 3-5 years and academic English proficiency (CALP) acquisition requires 4-7 years. The research of Collier (1987, 1995), Cummins (1981), and Mitchell, Destino and Karam (1997) reports that these findings may be underestimates and that it may actually take up to 10 years for EL students to become fully proficient in English, free of handicap in their ability to learn academic content and compete on high-stakes assessments with native English-speaking peers. - Socioeconomic Status -
---> Students who are more privileged have greater access to opportunities and resources (e.g. tutoring, books, Saturday school, etc.)
---> Students who are impoverished might focus more on getting their basic needs met (e.g. food, shelter, clothing, safety, etc.) than on school, often leading to lower academic performance.
---> Parent education level, as well as home and family characteristics, also play a huge role in second language acquisition. Parents who are highly educated and highly fluent in the L1 have more knowledge
and resources to help their children attain high fluency in L1. WHAT ARE THE
IMPLICATIONS OF THESE FINDINGS
FOR SCHOOLS AND TEACHERS? ---> 3-5 years for oral proficiency acquisition in English (BICS)
---> 4-7 years for academic English proficiency (CALP)
---> The research of Cummins (1981), and Mitchell, Destino and Karam (1997) estimates that it takes 10 years before students are fully proficient in English, i.e., are fully competitive in the academic uses of English compared to their age-equivalent, native English-speaking peers. HOW LONG DOES
IT TAKE FOR ONE TO
ACQUIRE A SECOND LANGUAGE? FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: WHAT IS THE SINGLE
MOST IMPORTANT FACTOR FOR
DEVELOPING A SECOND LANGUAGE?
WHY? ---> Time limit legislation, such as Prop. 227, hurts the
students who need the most help. Special after-school
or summer programs could be beneficial for high-poverty
districts and those with notably high concentrations
of EL students. ---> There is great need for reliable normative data on the
developmental course of EL students. ---> The "white space," defined by the continuing/widening gap
between El student and native English-speaker achievement as
students progress through the grade levels, remains cause for
concern in the fight to establish equal access to quality education
for all youth in the U.S.. REFERENCES:
Hakuta, K. Butler, Y. & Witt, D. (2000). How long does it take English Learners to attain
proficiency? The University of California Linguistic Minority Research Institute Policy
Report 20001. Accessed from https://www.2sc.usc.edu/mod/forum/view?id=23286 (Hakuta, K. Butler, Y. & Witt, D., 2000) ---> We need a balanced curriculum that is not only
English-focused, but helps all students to access all content
areas at step in their academic development.
---> Teachers need to be masters at scaffolding and differentiating
content-based lessons so that EL students do not continue to
fall further and further behind their native English-speaking peers.
---> ESL training courses should be mandated for every teacher
education program in the U.S.. Time-limit policies, such as
Proposition 227, should be done away with.
---> Lastly, implementation of bilingual programs should be directly
informed by research of the full development of EL students.